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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 8, 2012

various types pressed powder cosmetics


This time I’d like to share my experience in copy pressed powder product such as powder cake, pressed-powder fondation, eye-shadow, blush-on, etc. It’s not too difficult as long as we know the basic of making pressed powder product. Because they share the same basic, so once we succed to make a good compac powder, we can develope the formula to pressed powder fondation, eye shadows or blush on.

Frankly, I was more confusing to the terms pressed powder and powder fondation than the proccess of making them. So, this is what I found to describe the difference between them :

Pressed powder refers to powder for oil-control and it’s also used for setting makeup. It has little pigmentation (usually translucent, but some have a little pigmentation to blend better with skin color) and are sort of the ‘cake’ version of loose powder (which is also used to control shine and to set makeup). So it is basically an alternative to blotting sheets and also a more travel-friendly form of loose powder (if loose powder spills it would cause a huge mess).

Powder foundation meanwhile refers to base makeup. This means it has more pigmentation and it’s for evening out skintone. They may look similar to pressed powders sometimes but you can tell it’s a foundation because of the higher pigmentation. There are several types of powder foundation like 2 way cake, mineral foundation etc. (not to confuse you but it is also ok to use powder foundation to set makeup but it’s not used for shine-control).

– When we apply powder foundation, you’re going to see a difference to your skintone – maybe less redness or minor blemishes get covered up. With pressed powder it sinks into your skin and gives a shine-free look without altering your skin blemishes too much.

– Cake foundation has heavier coverage than pressed powder. Usually pressed powder has the weakest coverage compare to cream, cake, and liquid foundation. You can use pressed powder to seal in your foundation (The cake fondation will feel more wet if we touch the product due the the more binders used in it).

– The powder foundation is the one we should use under concealer. Never use pressed powder under concealer… the concealer will show up! Pressed powder is used over liquid foundation and concealer to ‘set it’. If you need to use concealer I seriously think you should use a liquid foundation first, even the powder one may look obvious, then if you need a light covering of pressed powder.

– Do take note that for touching ups, it’s NOT advisable to use a 2 way cake to touch up as mentioned earlier it contains BOTH foundation and powder, so if u use it for touching up, it will make your make up cakey or too thick. It’s still advisable to use a pressed powder for touching up when outside.

1. Anatomy of Pressed Powder

Pressed powder products are another simple product to formulate. These powder systems are based on :

Talc (or mica or sericite if a talc-free formula is desired).

The main ingredients usually talc or mica, depending on how the product is to be positioned. The talc should be small particle size, smooth and pressable. The talc can either be opaque or transparent depending on the qualities desired in the powder.


Fillers have special functionality to enhance the properties of cosmetic formulations. They improve skin feel and use and wear characteristics while some fillers even perfect the appearance of skin. All functional fillers will make your formula feel more luxurious through improved formula texture.

For skin adhesion are metallic soaps such as zinc stearate, magnesium stearate or aluminium stearate. They are usually added at 5-6%.

For the essential slip, adhesion, color laydown and anti greasing properties of the powder we can use polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate or lauryl lysine.

For enhance the feel and application are nylon 12, non-crystalline silica, kaolin, alumina or micronized polyethylene. These ingredients regulate the oil absorbency on the skin for people with very oily skin. They will keep the product in place and provide for longer wear.

Binder for pressing.

After the base formula (talc/mica/sericite) and fillers have been established, a suitable binder system must be selected in order to be able to press the powder into metal pans. The binder system can consist of one or more oils or a combination of oils and waxy materials. These ingredients must be able to completely wet all the powder particles evenly and create a free flowing homogeneous product.

The liquid portion of the binder can be an ester or oil such as mineral oil or other vegetable oil. Examples of esters are isopropyl palmitate and caprylic/capric triglyceride.

The waxy material can be lanolin derivatives such as isopropyl lanolate or lanolin alcohol, fatty alcohol such as cetyl or stearyl alcohol or fatty acid such as stearic acid.

These materials also aid in the product’s adhesion to the skin. The total binder can be as high as 6% or more in the finished product depending on the types of binder ingredients chosen.

NB: It is crucial when using vegetable oil/natural oil as binder to add anti oxidant agent such as BHT (butylhydroxylated toluene) to avoid the oil odor which will ruin the product’s fragrance.

Colors and pearls.

This is one of the most important component of pressed powder formulation. The colorants used are of the inorganic variety such as ultramarines, oxides of iron, chromium , titanium, zinc and tin, and organic colorants.

The color and pearl levels can vary depending on the current fashion trends that exist during the year. For eyeshadow the dry color level can be as high as 20-30% or more plus the pearl.


Some preservatives must be added to the formula to protect the product once it is in the hands of customer. These preservatives are usually the oil dispersible types such as propyl paraben or phenoxyethanol as there is usually no water present in the product. They can be added to the binder or ground with the other dry ingredients. The product should never be over preserved. Over preservation may cause skin irritation.

2. Manufacturing procedure for pressed powder


The powders must be blended sufficiently using mixer that tumbles and blends the powders without breaking or sintering the particles.

mixer ‘ribbon-type’

homogenous mixture

Milling the dry mixture

The dry mixture should be grinding using micropulverizer, hammer mill, disc mill or P-K Blender so that the particle size is uniform and small enough for proper product delivery and wetting. The colors in the mixture must be grounded to their primary particle size for optimum color development. Homogenity test should be conduct : making a paper press of the powder and seeing if there are any pigment specks and color streaking to see if the pigments are ground properly.

Very fine screens should be used in the grinding process, usually with holes or openings at 0.1-0.2 inches. ( The pearls should never be ground through a fine screen. This would destroy the pearl particles and will lose the effect of the material ). Pearls should only be ground as a very last step through a large screen opening just to fluff up and make the product uniform and prepare it for pressing.

disc mill

grinding the mixture

Adding the Binders and Perfume Oil

In all cases the binders must completely coat all the powder particles as this will aid in the proper pressing of the product. When we add the oil by pouring, we  should pour it little by little ( need some patience here ).

After all the binder have been poured into the mixture, it is now time for the perfume oil. There are many ways to achieve uniform distribution of the fragrance in the powder. One of them is  we could make a fragrance/absorbent powder pre-mix in a waring blender, and then add that (hopefully free-flowing) pre-blend to your other ingredients in a gentler/less energetic mixer.


Pressing the powder

A suitable pan must be selected made of the correct metal. Tin plating sometimes interferes with the powder pressing characteristics. The type of press and pressure is also important as well as the diameter and depth of the pan for a particular type of powder.

A drop test will be an adequate test of a powder’s compression properties. It is also important for a powder not to pimple or dust and not pressed so hard as to make the product glaze in the pan. The proper binder will help eliminate any negative attributes.

the same amount of powder to be placed in each pan

the same amount of powder to be placed in each pan(2)

the same pressure applied to each pan

a suitable product : eyeshadow

Silk ribbon is used to give the pressed powder surface a nice visual effect and sometimes a company’s logo can be embossed into the surface of the powder.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

1. Yes, pressed powder is another simple product to formulate. Once you have able to create a good formulation you can make either one of this product : compac-eyeshadow-blush on-2way cake.

2. Once we understand the process of making compac, there is no problem whether making a small batch scale with lab. device or industrial scale.

3. The pressure to correctly press a powder is different from formula to formula, and sometimes from batch to batch, and also depends on the size/shape of the container you are pressing into, and the machine you’re pressing with, and the length of time (dwell) that you press the powder for – among other things. You can only determine the correct settings by trial and error (If it was easy to figure this stuff out, they wouldn’t need a cosmetic chemist to do it).

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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on June 14, 2012


How are you guys? How’s your life going on? Hope it’s all fine. In this tough time, only the beware guys will survive. I’m really sorry not posting lately since the past six months. But today, I’m back! Thanks also for all the comments saying that you found something from this blog. I’m really grateful guys..

This time I’d like to post something about exfoliator/peeling gel. This one draws my attention.. unlike chemical peels which use strong acid, this peeling is very gentle on the skin and only removes the unwanted dead skin and it does not dry or thin the skin and cause it to be vulnerable to sunlight.

This is the product :

the innovative exfoliator/peeling gel

the clear gel

white beads form to remove dead skin cells

1. Creating innovative cosmetic products

To create innovative cosmetic products, we need to know about and find niche markets. A cosmetic niche market is no different than a niche market in some other field. Essentially, a niche market is a sub set of a larger market. In practical terms, it is a smaller group of people with some specific characteristic that sets them apart.

Now that we know niche markets are smaller segments of consumer groups, this is important.  Ex.  Creating innovative new products will have to make products different and specific like solve wrinkles, acne, hair loss, hair growth, etc. Like the above product, it is sort of exfoliator, but include no conventional scrubs, micro-dermabrasions, AHA, peel, etc. The formulation is just perfect – it is non-abrasive, doesn’t tingle skin like glycolic acid does, effective but gentle, and it provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. The skin appears much more clear, translucent, smooth and soft without stripping its natural oil after each application…. some say 1 bottle is sold every 20 seconds, awesome right?

2. List of Ingredients

So, after browsing/searching a while, I came across this formula..

R/                                                  %


Water ……………………….. ad 100

Cetrimonium Chloride ………10.5

Propyl Glycol ……………………7

Alcohol …………………………… 1

Perfume ………………………….. qs

PEG40 HCO ……………………… 0.2

Preservative …………………….. qs

At first, I still don’t get it and wonder :

– where’s the scrub?

– what the centrimonium do in this formula? since we know this is conditioning agent for hair.

I have to make these clear first, before I step forward. Actually, after rubbing the gel on the skin there will be chemical reaction between cetrimonium chloride and carbomer, thickener, which will form white beads/residues ( If you reduce one of the ingredients, you will find out the residues will lesser or if you change the thickener, using cellulose group, there won’t be any white beads formed ). This reaction occurs instanly and the white beads/residues will act as peeling agent which remove the upper dead skin layers ( the claim said that 0.01 mm of old skin can be removed ). The removal process is very soft, gentle and provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. After washing, the skin feel moist, soften, translucent and bright.

This is really great innovation product. No wonder this product is very success in the market place.

3. Gathering raw materials

a. Carbomer

Yes, carbomer is one of the most revolutionary raw material. It is a swellable polymer that can create clear gels and elegant skin care products with a light feeling and good application properties. That made it easier to formulate stable skin care creams. It is difficult to create clear gels with good aesthetics without these polymers. That’s why carbomers also called as ‘formulator’s best friend’.

Carbomer is typically reserved to describe high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid that are lightlyl cross-linked with allyl ethers of  polyalcohols eg. tetraallyl pentaerythritol (TAPE) and hexaallyl sucrose.

polyacrylic acid (PAA)

general structure of carbomer

The National Formulary (NF) lists traditional carbomers individually according to their specific chemistry and properties, eg. solution viscosity, using numbers associated with the trade names, eg. Carbomer 934 ( 30,500- 39,400 cP ), Carbomer 940 ( 40,000-60,000 cP ) etc. For modern carbomers synthetized using benzene-free processes, the NF has adopted the terms carbomer homopolymer ( polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols), carbomer copolymer ( copolymer of acrylic acid and a long chain alkyl methacrylate cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols ) and carbomer interpolymer ( carbomer homopolymer or carbomer copolymer that contains a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and a long chain alkyl acid esters ) to describe the various species of carbomers.

In contrast, the INCI Dictionary reserves the term carbomer for crosslinked copolymers of acrylic acid and it names crosslinked copolymer of acrylic acid with other comonomers as acrylate crosspolymers, eg. acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Well, I hope we’re not’s all just terminology.

Now, we’ll talk about properties of carbomers :

1. Appearance : fluffy, white, hygroscopic powders with a slight acetic acid odor.

2. Variety differing principally by : the type of process solvent used (ie. benzene vs non benzene), the type and level of crosslinker employed and the addition of optional additives to improve wetting and dispersibility.

3. Nontoxic and exhibit little or no irritation potential to skin and eyes at concentrations employed in cosmetics and personal care products.

4. Impurities : residual polymerization solvents, unreacted monomers (eg. acrylic acid), acetic acid, proprionic acid, trace heavy metals, etc.

5. Dispersibility : readily dispersible in water and in mixture of  polar organic solvents with water such as 70% w/w ethanol-water solution.

6. pH : 2,5-3,5. ( Prior neutralization with a basic pH adjuster, eg. NaOH, TEA, these dispersions DO NOT possess significant viscosity and can be hazy. Upon neutralization of the carboxylic acid groups, the carbomer becomes ionized and swells to several hundred times its original volume due to electrostatic repulsions between the negatively charged carboxylate groups and osmotic swelling due to the captive counterions. The resulting microgel dispersions, sometimes referred to as mucilages, are clear fluids that display high viscosities and also exhibit high yield value.. the resistance of a fluid to initial flow when a stress is applied. ).

b. Centrimonium chloride

This ingredient belong to surfactant group. I’ve post about surfactant. If you like to read about it, click here.

4. Creating and revising prototype

After having complete understanding, I tried to make small scale in the frugal laboratory using simple tools like mortar/stamper, electric heater, glassware, etc. This just the steps :

1. Weighing the ingredients.


2. Mixing the water and humectant.

mixing water+humectant

3. Dispersing the carbomer until clear gel is formed.

dispersing carbomer..

4. Pouring the centrimonium chloride into the clear gel.

adding centrimonium chloride..

5. Adding emollient.

checking the gel..

5. Testing the prototypes

The first type of testing I want to do is to use the product on myself. Since I have experience with the target product I will know how close I am to matching it. No test will be more revealing as to whether I’ve copied the product than when I test in on myself. And then I’ll make note of any differences I experience.

the prototype..

apply the gel to my skin..

white beads produced after rubbing..

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

1. This product came from Japan and Japanese women are famous for their love of cosmetics.  So whenever a beauty product has been voted number 1 in Japan, it is the best selling pitch for others too.

2. To create innovative cosmetic products, we  need to know about and find niche markets.

So that’s all, if you find something please leave your comments below.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , | 16 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on October 23, 2011

– What do people use for making up small test batches of cosmetics (liquid, emulsions, etc.)?

– Is there an alternative to the kitchen blender?

– In formulation development, would it be better to have a homogenizer or a mixer (or both)?

– My company just willing to order mixer for making perfume (liquid). Now, I”m just wonder several things : What is the rpm of the mixer? also about the type of blade, what is the best type to get homogenous liquid ? And what else to watch?

– I’m just wondering what’s the most efficient type machine used for loose powder/compact.  Is it a combined homogenizer and mixer?

– I’d like to know if we can manufacture stable emulsions on an industrial scale without using a homogenizer of rotor / stator type. In this case what type of mixing device must be chosen  (shape, speed, diameter..ect)?

– Would like to get a decent filler and some type of homogenizer or mixer for lotions that I don’t have to stand there and hold the whole time.

– I have to get some kind of mixer but not “lab” sized and not huge manufacturing size. Stinks to be stuck in the middle but that’s the reality of it. I would like to get something I can stick in the kettle with the emulsion and let it stir constantly to help cool and homogenize the mixture. I would like to do at least 5 gallons at a time (which is about all I can lift to put in the filler hopper). Please someone give me some advice on this. I have a very limited budget right now and I want to get something that will help make my life easier and my products faster ASAP!

– What would the correct type mixer / emulsifier be combined with a filler? I’m just not completely sure what I need but I am under the impression that a larger stick blender is not the correct type of mixer for making lotions and creams.

– I have a manual filler that works for now, but I have to make larger batches faster so I can be more efficient with my time. Any brands you recommend?

– We’re looking for something to either put on a stand or clamp onto the mixing vessel. I just want to make sure these are not “too” powerful or have the wrong blades for emulsifying and continuous mixing.

– If anyone knows of a link to videos showing how larger manufacturers fill paste-like granular products into jars I would love to see it

– Is the agitator a must in lotion making ?

Here’s just some example questions I collect to show how important these equipments in cosmetic production.

I have my own experience. Trying to copy nail polish product, I start creating  a formula, gathering raw material and creating prototype . At last I realized that it’s impossible for me to make nail polish product since I don’t have high-shear disperser nor miller/homogeniser.

high-shear disperser is needed to form gel of suspending agent not ‘hand blender’

colloid mill is needed to process this pigment not just ‘mortir’

According to their functions, we can divide these equipments into several categories, namely :

1. Equipment to process color cosmetics.

This equipment in the grinding process used to reduce colors, pigments and other color additives ( except pearlescent effect pigments ) down to their primary particle size of 3-5 microns.  You don’t want to grind pearls because a reduction in their particle size reduces or eliminates their visual effect. Grinding pigments is the most important part of producing color and decorative cosmetics.

The equipment available to perform this grinding process varies greatly in both function and cost. They are dependant on the particular type of product or its application. Different equipment is needed if you have a dry powder, a free-flowing liquid, or a viscous paste. These physical forms are all very similar as they are all dispersions of insoluble pigments in a suitable solvent vehicle. This dispersion, once it is ground, is then combined with the proper internal or external phase in the case of emulsions, or blended with other components – mica and other fillers for powder-based products, or waxes and oils in anhydrous lip products and other lipophilic one-phase systems. Even though a lipstick is a hard solid at room temperature, color is added as a dispersion usually in castor oil.

Let’s start with the easiest – lipsticks and lip glosses. These are usually one phase anhydrous hot pour systems with one major ingredient that is usually the main solvent in the system. It is this ingredient, usually castor oil or lanolin oil, which we use to grind the pigments. For this grinding process we can use a 3-roll mill or a ball mill/bead mill. They each have a totally different operating method but the end result is still the same – a nice smooth paste free from particulates, specks or color streaks. To achieve this, sufficient oil is used to completely wet out the pigments and the dispersion is usually passed through the mill a minimum of 2 times to sufficiently grind the pigments. This dispersion is then added to the remaining ingredients in the formula, and heated to a suitable temperature to allow for uniform mixing and homogeneity.

milling color – 3 rollmill

3-roll-mill in process

threerollmill theory



bead-mill theory

For powders, which are dry particulate systems, a different type of grinding and dispersing method is required. Here the pigments are blended with either talc or a mica or sericite and then ground with hammer mill or a canister type vessel with an internal high speed intensifier bar. This also requires 2 passes to break down the pigments to their proper particle size. In the hammer mill, the force of the hammers moving in a circular motion grinds the pigments and forced the dispersion through a screen with small hole usually 0.100 inches. This screen usually has circular holes to allow the powder to pass or openings with a herringbone pattern.

hammer mill



hammer_mill theory


The next, and probably the most critical process, is that of grinding pigments for emulsion-type products. Here the liquid vehicle is critical in determining which phase the pigments are to be dispersed. Here, no matter what the liquid vehicle, colloid mills and even ball mills can be used to grind the pigments. After the grinding process is complete and the dispersion is free of any unground pigments, this dispersion is added to the proper phase and the batch process is continued to completion.


A colloid mill’s grinding mechanism involves a rotor and a stator. As the names imply, the rotor rotates at a high speed and the stator is a stationary piece. The gap between the rotor and stator can be closed to within thousandths of an inch so that the grinding process can take place. In a ball mill, dispersions pass through a canister of tiny balls. The material that the balls are made of can differ depending on hardness desired and what materials you are grinding. They can be made of metallic or ceramic material. The friction of the dispersion passing between all the tiny balls creates the grinding mechanism. This type of milling as compared to a 3-roll mill is more effective in color development depending on the types of colorants being ground. Organic pigments usually develop better in a ball mill. Ball mills can also generate some heat in the grinding process so precautions should be taken in order to prevent solvent loss when working with volatile materials.

In my own experience when dealing with the nail polish, the milling of the pigment should use this kind of machine so the particle size is around 5 microns and they will easily kept dispersed in the product ( increase the stability ).

2. Equipment to mix, dissolve or disperse

They just used for mixing liquid, dissolve solid material or dispersing solid phase in liquid phase. In dispersing, the particle size down to 30 microns.

propeller_mixer for mixing liquids


hockmeyer mixer-disperser

disperser blade

cowles dissolver



dispax reactor

dispax reactor diagram

The DISPAX REACTOR is a high shear, three stage dispersing machine for the production of micro-emulsions and very fine suspensions. Three rotor-stator combinations (generators) in a series produce a small droplet or particle size, with a very narrow distribution. The generators can be easily interchanged, offering the ultimate in flexibility.

3. Equipment to homogenize

There are also homogenizers that can be used and are ideal for making dispersions or products uniform and homogeneous. They smooth out the product and reduce emulsion droplet size (emulsifying). This is also important for good product stability.



silverson homogeniser head

So that’s it for now. If you read this article and have comment pls write down below.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line 

– It is very important to determine the specific application and needs before you go and purchase an expensive piece of machinery. You don’t want to spend all that money and the equipment just gathers dust because you purchased to wrong model and use it once every 6 months or so. You want to purchase the right model so that you can work with it every day

– You should also shop around to get the best price for the particular piece of equipment that will work best.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on September 4, 2011

Hi all,

This time I’d like to write very interesting lightening cosmetics. This just something people try to do for hundred years ago.. cover blemishes with cosmetics. The records of the fourth century physician Galen speaks of them in the previous millennium. Until about 1973, dangerous agents such as ammoniated mercury had been used. Since then, mercury derivatives had been banned from most countries.

Many people are concerned with the degree of pigmentation of their skin. In Asia, most women desire whiter skin because of traditional beliefs that white skin denotes nobility and aristocracy.  An extreme case is in Japan where Geisha are known to paint their face white as a sign of social status, grace and beauty. Today the Geisha still paint their faces white but only as a ceremony of celebration of culture, history and background.

In other region within lower-class society such as in Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Mexico when asked why women used skin-whitening creams, and in some cases even applied these creams to their children,  one woman from an Arab-American family replied directly, “Oh, that’s simple. It is well known that in many Arab families the whiter looking children are the most preferred. People will often respond positively to the lighter-colored child and simply ignore the darker one.”

In an interview with one Latin American woman about identification and self-image, she told that “whiter-looking Spanish women are generally perceived as more attractive to many Latino men and vice versa.” The woman, a journalist, went on to say that during her childhood, her parents and her friends’ parents had always carefully screened the children invited to their parties “to be certain that they were light enough in color” and thus “of sufficient socioeconomic value to be included.”

So, the prevalent medical evidence of high levels of mercury poisoning among women of Saudi, African, Asian and Mexican backgrounds reflects a common and prevailing belief that whiter skin has greater currency and appeal. Apparently, the patients reporting to clinics with mercury-induced disease believe that the health risks associated with bleaching their skins are outweighed by the rewarding sociocultural return. In other words, they believe that removing the healthy melanin from their skin with toxic creams and soaps makes them more valuable in their own cultures and in European and Euro-American societies in general.

POISONOUS CREAM! Above is an example of a “skin-lightening” cream that contains poisonous levels of mercury.

The product contained 6,000 parts per million (ppm) of mercury, despite FDA regulations which limit mercury to 1 ppm.  What is the effect if someone apply mercury-based beauty/lightening cream ? Mercury poisoning is known to cause neurological and kidney damage and may also lead to psychiatric disorders. Now, we can see the urgency to quickly invent novel skin lighteners and depigmenting agents with a proven eficacy and safety profile with reasonable price. They’re a prominent need.

– What is Hiperpigmentation ?

Hyperpigmentation or skin discoloration is condition of skin when some patches of skin become darker than the surrounding area or generalized, when all body is affected. Hyperpigmentation can be inherited or, more often, aquired by a number of causes including photoaging, hormonal changes (contraceptives pregnancy, menopause), repeated and prolonged exposure to the sun, and chronic skin irriations, inflammation or skin diseases. Many people are concerned with the degree of pigmentation of their skin. For example, people with age spots/melasma, chloasma/mask of pregnancy  or freckles may wish such pigmented spots to be less pronounced.

freckle face

melasma, darker-skin

Others may wish to reduce the skin darkening caused by exposure to sunlight or to lighten their natural skin color. Such skin pigmentation disorder occur because the body produces too much melanin, which is the pigment produced by melanocytes in the skin. In recent years, cosmetic compositions have been developed to reduce the amount of melanin in the skin and therefore, whiten the skin.

– Biosynthesis of melanin

schematic of melanin synthesis

Skin and follicular/hair pigmentation is the result of the exposure of melanin at the surface of the skin and of the the hair follicle. Melanogenesis/synthesis of melanin is carried out specifically by the melanocytes, dendritic cells present in the basal layer of the epidermis, which put out branches for contact with the keratinocytes. The newly synthesized melanin is transferred from the melanocyte dendrites to the keratinocytes, which ultimately expose the melanin at the surface of the epidermis, thus providing uniform coloration of the epidermis.

The synthesis of melanins (pheomelanins, rich in sulfur, giving an orange color; eumelanins, conferring a brown color) is carried out in the melanosomes, which are melanocyte-specific lyosome-like organelles, by a complex enzymatic process. Three enzymes located on the internal face of the melanosomal membrane are successively involved in melanogenesis : tyrosinase, TRP-2 (tyrosinase-related protein-2) and TRP-1 (tyrosinase-related protein-1).

Tyrosine, a precursor for melanin synthesis, is hydroxylated to Dopa (dihydroxyphenylalanine) and then oxidized to dopaquinone, these two conversions being due to the action of tyrosinase. At this stage, the melanin synthesis canbe oriented toward pheomelanin (orange-yellow melanin) which is encountered in blond individuals/ redheads, or toward eumelanin (darkbrown melanin) which is encountered in individuals with dark pigmentation.

Eumelanin results from the polymerization of dopaquinone so as to give leukodopachrome and then dopachrome. The latter is in turn converted either to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) or to 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) under the action of TRP-2. At this level, the synthesis of eumelanin can be carried out according to two pathways. DHI is oxidized, under the action of tyrosinase or of a peroxidase, to indole-5,6-quinone, while DHICA, under the action of TRP-1, gives 5,6-dihydroindole-2-carboxylic acid. The indole-5,6-quinone and the 5,6-dihydroindole-2-carboxylic acid polymerize so as to form melanochromes and then eumelanin.

The synthesis of pheomelanin involves the formation of sulfur compounds (cysteinyl-DOPA) subsequent to the action on dopaquinone of glutathione and of cysteine. The cysteinyl-DOPA is converted to alanylhydroxybenzothiazine and then to pheomelanin.

Under the effect of solar radiation of UVB type, human keratinocytes produce and secrete endothelin peptide hormone which exerts a paracrine effect on the melanocytes. Endothelin activates a G protein-coupled membrane receptor (ETR) inducing melanocytes proliferation, and transcription of the genes encoding tyrosinase and the ETR. Similarly, in response to UV radiation, keratinocytes and melanocytes secrete the α-MSH peptide ( melanocortin-stimulating hormone ) which regulates melanocytes pigmentation activity. To do this, α-MSH binds to MC-R ( melanocortin receptor ), inducing activation of the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway, or even of the ser/thr kinase PKC, resulting in de novo synthesis of tyrosinase and in eumelanin synthesis. PKC-β appears to directly activate tyrosinase by phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain thereof. α-MSH also appears to facilitate the trasnsfer of melanin to keratinocytes by stimulating melanocyte dendricity.

– Treatment for hyperpigmentation

The substances known for their depigmenting properties can act according to one of the following mechanisms :

1. On the viability of the epidermal and/or follicular melanocytes where melanogenesis takes place. This substance ( also called MC1-R receptor antagonist ) capable of binding to the melanotropin cellular receptors ( MC1-R ) present on the melanocyte membrane, of blocking the binding of α-MSH (melanocortin stimulating hormone ), a ligand specific for MC1-R, and of inhibiting the activation of MC1-R by α-MSH which will specifically and reversibly inhibits melanogenesis by decreasing the synthesis and the excessive production of  melanin pigments.

Among the MC1-R receptor antagonists known are : Melanostatine®5 ( INCI name : nonapeptide-1 ), an oligopeptide discovered by the Institut Europeen de Biologie cellulaire/European Cell Biology Institute, sold by the company Unipex and Sepiwhite MSH® ( INCI name : undecylenoyl phenylalanine ), lipoamino acid sold by the company Seppic.

2. By interfering with one of the stages of melanin biosynthesis, or by inhibiting one of the enzymes involves in the melanogenesis or by intercalating as a structural analogue of one of the chemical compounds of the melanin synthesis chain. These substances are widely used. Most skin whiteners currently on the market contain ingredients (hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, kojic acid,arbutin, azealic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid (licorice extract), cortex mori, and many others) that act as direct inhibitors of tyrosinase, the enzyme in the skin pigment cells (melanocytes) that make melanin.

Hydroquinone, however, exhibit considerable cytotoxicity capable of causing irreversible depigmentation and irritates the skin strongly, furthermore hydroquinone has recently been recognized as a carcinogen and thus the use of hydroquinone in cosmetic products has been prohibited by European regulatory. Just recently the FDA also announced its plans to possibly remove hydroquinone based products from store shelves (OTC) and limit its use to only prescription based medications.

3. By interfering in the transfer of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes such as Nicotinamide ( INCI name : niacinamide ).

4. Inhibit UV-induced melanin synthesis. These ingredients block UVA rays, the tanning rays, and therefore prevent skin darkening, ex. inorganic sunscreens such as Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. In case of darker skin, the usage of UV sunscreen ( with >SPF 30 ) become the entire imperative as it offers protection to skin from early ageing and wrinkling.

5. Removal of pigmented skin cells with exfoliants such as alpha-hydroxy acids ( glycolic acid, salicylic acid, lactic acid ).

The ideal depigmenting compound should have a potent, rapid and selective bleaching effect on hyperactivated melanocytes, carry no short- or long-term side-effects and lead to a permanent removal of undesired pigment.

– Recent Skin-Lightening Patents

Recent patents related to skin lightening include :

1. Pomegranate melanin reduction, the pomegranate extract may be standardized to about 20% punicalagins, which are large polyphenol tannin compounds.

2. Reducing retinoid irritation in skin lightening. Effective skin lightening is achieved by combining a polymeric microparticle-entrapped retinoid with a second skin lightening agent such as kojic acid or a derivative thereof ( kojic acid dipalmitate ) in an emulsion composition.

3. Dopa oxidase inhibitor. By inhibiting dopa oxidase activity, thereby suppressing melanin production.

– Tips for finding a good skin lightening cream

1. Never buy creams that contain steroids.

2. Avoid buying creams which contain hydroquinone.

3. Mitracarpus extract, bearberry extract and mulberry extract are good alternatives to hydroquinone.

4. Creams containing Kojic Acid in combination with glycolic acid show good results.

5. Azelic acid in 15-20% concentration is very effective and causes less irritation than hydroquinone.

6. Look for skin lightening creams that contain plant extracts too.

7. Creams having Vitamin C are extremely good in inhibiting melanin production.

8. Avoid creams which contain mercury as an active ingredient.

So..that’s all for now. If you’re already read it and have something in mind, just write comment below.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– Do not use products or imported products if there are no ingredients, registration number, manufacturer address, expired date and batch code on the label.

– Perhaps we must make an equally strong effort to convince women and men of color that they are beautiful as they are. This task may be as challenging as trying to convince people with light skin that it is unnecessary and hazardous to lie out in the sun or go to a salon in pursuit of a tan.

– “Skin-whitening” cream, one product say, “lightens your complexion and eliminates ugly spots and accumulated impurities, leaving the skin with an even glow.” Other products suggest its use for” any discoloration due to age, wrinkles, freckles or sun spots”

– A number of skin-lightening compounds have been partially or completely banned because of toxicity and environmental concerns. For example : mercury, hormonal preparations and oxidizing agents have been banned as skin-lightening agents.

– The trend is to find natural extracts that can synergistically provide inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme.

– Combining skin-lightening agents is possible, specifically the combinations of niacinamide with an ascorbyl derivatives or with mulberry and bearberry extract, and arbutin and ascorbyl derivatives with kojic dipalmitate.

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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on August 30, 2011

Hi guys,

How’s the things? Sorry for no posting lately, merely just lack of idea. Now I got one, dealing with my situation right now. As most of you know I’m working in a small..very small.. 🙂 cosmetics manufacturer, formulating mostly make-up kit   ( compact powder- foundation )  & perfume. Though we’re small, our orders have increased so much lately to a point where we need to figure out-within a very strict budget and space-how to increase our production so we can get more product out the door fast. Right now, we can make about 10 kg/batch and I’d like to at least double that. The equipments we have are simple filler with a manual piston type and hopper fits just about 15 kg products. I know that we need to invest in some equipments to be more productive and efficient. Anyhow, the price of equipments is very..very frightening.

It’s very crucial for cosmetics company to go from lab-batch to pilot project and last scale-up production. Scale-up from laboratory to production is can sometimes be a little difficult. There are some factors that must be taken into consideration before even get to the production floor. The most critical points to look at are batch size, energy requirements, equipment capabilities, time and temperature, among others. These must be considered along with type of product, ingredient type, concentration, phase ratio and order of addition.  One point overlooked may mean the difference between a successful batch and a total failure. There’s nothing worse than expecting a product to turn out as a heavy cream and you wind up with a thin lotion.  

Energy requirements

The total amount of energy required to produce a batch in the lab must be translated into larger production batches, no matter what the batch size is. This is even more critical when making emulsions. Examples :

1. If it takes 10 minutes to add an oil phase to a water phase in the lab, then it must also take 10 minutes to incorporate that same oil phase into the water phase of a 2000 kilogram size batch in production. Yes, a transfer pump must be used in production to recreate the emulsion. The same exact speed and flow characteristics must be used for the pump.

2. Mixer speed and energy produced by a homogenizer (lab and production models shown below) if all this energy is required to create the product.

homogenizer-lab(left) & homogenizer-production(right)

This must be duplicated in order to produce the same product with the same identical characteristics: droplet size, viscosity, application characteristics, feel, color, etc. The energy required in production must be the same as used in the lab which means that mixer size, rpm’s, energy output, sheer rate, etc. must all be calibrated to be equal.  Otherwise the possibility of having a different type of emulsion is quite real if the proper conditions are not met.

3. The grinding method used in the lab must also be used in manufacturing. This will ensure that all color particles have been broken down to 3-5 microns to guarantee optimum color development and avoiding any color streaking or specks. The equipment pictured below (a pigment disperser and a 3-roll mill) are not equal and will give the final product differences in feel, consistency, color particle size, possible hardness, and above all, shade. However the lab bench top roller mill and the larger mill next to it are definitely equivalent.


Manufacturing procedures

The formulator must be able to create manufacturing procedures that will guarantee reproducibility of a certain type of product, no matter how large the batch may be. These include :

1. Mixing. Mixing speeds and the amount of energy introduced during processing have a direct impact on the final aesthetics, stability and homogenity of the final product. This may be easy for small lab batch but can be more complicated in production. Lately, I succeded in developing compact powder with simple ingredient in lab scale, about 500 g/batch. But, frankly, I’m confused how to make if the batch size is 10 kg. Also, in developing nail polish, I succeded in lab scale about 500 g/batch. The question is how supposed to make if the batch size is 10 kg? This is exactly the same to cream.

2. Heating and Cooling. Lab batches can heat/cool to ambient temperature rather quickly, but it takes much longer for a plant to heat/cool a production- size batch. Uneven cooling process could cause, for example, the premature solidification of waxes in the development of  an emulsion.

3. Sub-phases or Pre-mixes are smaller phases compromised of several ingredients that require pre-mixing to dissolve, wet or react prior to their addition to the main phase. If sub-phases/pre-mixes are necessary ensure that this type of mixing is possible for production with just a propeller mixer rather than a homogenizer.

4. Rate and Order of Addition. The rate and sequence for transferring materials into the main kettle must also be controlled and consistent. Each phase should have adequate mixing time before the subsequent sequence is added. To maintain uniform mixing, the order and rate of addition during scale-up may be modified. The batch may cannot withstand over-mixing during a long addition sequence.

5. Formula Adjustments. Adjustments, whether for color, pH or viscosity, ensure consistency in aesthetics as well as micro integrity. If in-process adjustments are necessary, determining the specific amount of adjuster added is useful so that in the future, it can be added up front during lab batches and pilots to optimize the process for production. Making lab batches with multiple lots can provide insight on the amount required for the pH or viscosity adjustment. It is easier to slightly adjust the pH or viscosity of a batch near the end of the process rather than to initiate prolonged mixing with a long adjustment sequence after the batch has been completed.


The correct equipment available will guarantee that the batch scale up can adequately be performed.  All the equipment used in the laboratory and production is designed with documented specifications regarding pump speed, torque, rpm’s, horsepower rating, heating and cooling rate, etc. Some examples lab-equipmetnts :


Some examples production equipments :


Process Development Engineer

Product physics and energy requirements are usually beyond the capabilities of the average formulator unless they have some level of engineering experience which is only in very rare instances. In order to meet these challenges, a process development engineer is necessary to work very closely with the formulator.  The engineer knows exactly what equipment to use to achieve the desired energy necessary to replicate a product successfully and reproduce it no matter how big the batch is or what kettle/ equipment combination is used. If certain equipment is not available to perform a certain task on a larger scale, then the engineer is capable of making suitable recommendations as to the design and construction of such a piece of equipment. With new products comes new technology and the need for new equipment to successfully replicate these new products. That’s why process engineers are usually involved very early in the product development process, advising and offering input to the formulator with regard to equipment and energy requirements.

In a process development lab, a laboratory formula is made with the equipment the process engineer feels will adequately duplicate the product. Larger batches of the formula are made to see if this will happen. Recommendations are made to the formulator as to changes that may be necessary in the formula. The formulator and the process development engineer usually work very closely together in this process. When a formulator presents the formula to the engineer, the engineer knows (based on the equipment available in the production facility) exactly where and with what equipment the product will be made. It will be known right away which equipment combination will be optimum for a specific product for a specific kettle/mixer combination. But not every piece of equipment can be used for every product.

New equipment design may be necessary in order to manufacture a specific type of cosmetic or personal care product. New equipment design will make it possible to manufacture products that were once thought to be impossible to make. Such specialized equipment can be manufactured for laboratory or production use, making batch scaleup less of an issue because scaleup has already been considered by the manufacturer in the equipment’s design. Usually an engineer has to calculate the differences in energy output compared to horsepower rating and rpm’s between different pieces of equipment. This is how an engineer knows what product can be made where and at what batch size. With new equipment, the manufacturer already knows and has calculated these differences ahead of time making the engineer’s job a little bit easier. It is sometimes based on an engineer’s specifications with custom designed equipment setups geared towards specific production requirements.

So, these are I’m facing right now. I have copied nail polish product, compact powder and whitening cream in laboratory. And now, time to scale up the batch size to production scale and it is not as simple as there’s different problems are awaiting to be solved..

If you finish read this posting and like to comment just feel free to write below..

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– There should be no guessing or question marks when it comes to recreating an approved formula that has to ship quickly. A formulator must keep these points in the back of their mind and be aware that these conditions must be addressed in order to create the best product.

– There should be no holdup when the lab formula has to go to production. A product should be in and out of the kettle, filled and shipped to the cosmetic counter for sale to consumers around the world.

An experienced process development engineer is really important part of this scale up process.

– At last, the most important is the many problems can’t be solved without investing new equipment, new ingredient or even new environment condition.

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Copy Nail Polish Product..

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 24, 2011

Hi all,

Cosmetics and their use as decorative applications for the human body have been in existence for centuries and are used extensively throughout the world. As a multibillion-dollar industry, cosmetics have many different applications, including the use of lipstick, eyeliner, facial creams, powders, highlighters and nail polishes or lacquers. Used primarily by women, the extent of cosmetic use is extraordinary, and has made many of the cosmetics producing and marketing firms very profitable endeavors.

The nail polish sector of the cosmetic industry is extremely competitive. New colors, combinations, including clear formulations and varitation thereof are constantly hold onto a bigger piece of the market share. The scientific research that is poured into these endeavors is considerable and new products and/or brand names are continually being introduced.

According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the global market for nail products, which includes nail varnishes, enamels, nail varnish removers, treatments, home manicure products, including cuticle softeners and nail strengtheners, reached $4.9 billion in 2010, with hand care products, including hand moisturizers, emollients, and soothers and hydrators for skin prone to redness, irritation, or eczema, reaching $2.3 billion. Nail products in the US reached $800 million in retail value, and US hand care products were valued at $110 million.

Euromonitor notes that nail polish was the fastest growing category in the sector, registering 8% current value growth in 2009, an improvement on the 7% growth in the previous year. In addition, the DIY (do it yourself) trend helped drive 9% value growth in nail care products in 2009. Budget conscious consumers continue to give themselves manicures and pedicures at home, while nail polishes continue to benefit from new launches. According to Euromonitor, as a result of the growth in sales, nail products also saw a flurry of company activity, with, Coty acquiring the OPI nail polish brand.

Marvelous..superb..tons of business opportunities..

What are nail polishes? They are essentially comprised of pigments and/or dyes that are incorporated and suspended in various solvents and bases. The polishes are also stabilized in the suspensions to protect the appearance of the product and to prevent the pigments, during the shelf life of the product, from floating, settling, separating, or striating the polish. Nail polishes are also formulated so that the film formed thereby is tough and durable and adheres to the human nail and will not readily crack, chip, peel, splinter, or become brittle after application and during wear. The toughness should last for an extended period of time, thereby enhancing the durability of the nail polish enamel.

I’ve been assigned to copy nail polish/nail enamel/nail lacquer. It’s been more complicated than the first one, see here, If you’re wondering what was I doing about it, I conveniently presented it to you. I devided into several steps, ie :

1. The Target.

12 different shades to copy

2. Create formulas.

There are many sources available :

US PATENTS & many free-online formularies of suppliers, magazines and other sources.

3. Gathering raw materials.

I think this is the toughest part of the job. Because I work in small company, I’m unable to meet with the sales reps from all suppliers as many actually don’t know about the existence of the company. Really gathering from scratch..:). But I just thought this as a kind of mentally be patience, not easily give up. An interesting story when I called the principle reps office in Singapore just to ask their reps office in Indonesia. But the try is worthy. The reps in Indonesia really proved to bring great help to this project, by supplying great data and sample..:)

3. Create dye solution for color matching.

To match the color with the target, I started with 0.1% w/w oil solutions of the colors. Fortunately, the colors for nail polished used to comprise of D&C Red #6, #7, #34, D&C Yellow #5 Lakes, Titanium Dioxide, Mica, Iron Oxides, Iron Black Aluminium Silicate and Iron Blue Aluminium Silicate. 

After mixed it, compare to the target and determine whether it is to dark or too light. In the next attempt, double the amount of color if too light or cut it in half if too dark. Continue this process of doubling or halving dye levels until get something that matches. If done properly, we should get pretty close in 7 tries. Also, do not forget to record how much color we’ve used.

4. Make solution for Nitrocellulose.

As Nitrocellulose is dangerous/explosive if not handling properly, so it is safer to keep this material in the form of solution. First, wetting the Nitrocellulose with 30% Isopropyl Alcohol, and then dissolved with ester solvent such as Ethyl Acetate. First we don’t have clear solution, but with keeping it in tight container, we’ll have clear solution within days.

Well, now one of the crucial point is taken care, keeping the Nitrocellulose safe! What a relief..:)

5. Prepare the nail polish base.

I devided this base into 2 : clear lacquer base and thixotropic clear lacquer base.

a. Clear Lacquer Base 

clear nail lacquer

To make this clear lacquer base, I just mixed acrylates copolymer with solvent like alcohol and butyl acetate or acetone. This will make a clear one, different from nitrocellulose or its derivates which produce clear, yellowish solution.

Thanks to God ! When I try this clear base by applying to my nail, this proved to be a good one.. Have glossy,  proper viscosity, good adhesion & flexibility, chip & scratch resistance.

So relief..just half way left to finish the product.

b. Thixotropic Clear Lacquer

To complete gelification need 1-day standing

Composition consist of clear lacquer + attapulgite, a hydrated magnesium aluminosilicate. Attapulgite occurs as tightly packed bundles of submicron particles whose lathe-like structure gives it unique colloidal and sorptive properties. As thickener and suspending agent, they provide benefits including easy dispersion, formulating latitude and long term stability.

Both ingredients (clear lacquer & attapulgite) have to be dispersed using a high mixing speed, eg. with the help of an Ultra-Turrax apparatus or a dissolver. High-speed mixing creates optimum dispersion, thus rapid & maximum thickening. Intensive, slow-speed mixing, such as with a double planetary-type mixer, may take longer to develop near maximum viscosity.

During this process the lacquer becomes warm. After cooling a jelly stucture starts to appear. This gelification process is completely after about 1 day of standing. The amount of attapulgite is reduced as solids rise. Pigmented systems may need less than 0.5% for suspension or soft-settle, and those with large particles may need 0.5% to 2.0%. These solids content and amount of attapulgite are crucial. Too much will cause the product too thick and can’t be applied smoothly. Too little will cause the opposite, the product will be too thin and difficult to apply.

6. The finished nail lacquer.

Depending on the desired pearl effect, appropriate pearl-pigment dispersion or pure powdered pearl-pigments are added to the thixotropic clear lacquer. Usually between 0.3%-1.5%. Powder pigments from Rona/Merck program can yield attractive effects in nail lacquers, such as :

  • interference pigments for change-effects, eg. Timiron Super Red, Timiron Super Violet, Timiron Super Copper.
  • color lustre pigments for lustre and color, eg. Colorona Sienna, Colorona Copper, Colorona Bronze.

Concentration in the nail lacquer about 1%-1.5%.

The pearl pigment dispersion or the pigment powder is carefully stirred into the thixotropic clear lacquer until homogeneous. A dispersion apparatus should however, on no account be used for this purpose.

Further addition of dye stuffs is possible. Conventional pigments should be dispersed into the thixotropic clear lacquer before the pearl lustre pigments are added, because they need high shear forces for dispersion.

7. Filling nail polish.

The obstacles in filling nail lacquer are small bottles, narrow necks, flammable contents. Manual filling machine for cream might work, but should modify the filling head so that it turn very narrow and can reach the bottom of the pack. Unless, the bubbles will blowing nail polish out of the top of pack.

During the filling, as it is a solvent based product, make sure it is well ventilated. Otherwise, after a couple of dozen packs we’ll be floating on the ceilings..:)

andriantoangkadirjo bottom line

– Nail polish is really very2 competitive cosmetic product. It is the fastest growing category in the sector with highest value growth in the market.

– Nail polish formulation is really unique. Not only cosmetic but also dealing paint formula in general, like car, house,etc. The knowledge in it is vast..No wonder many cosmetic industries are reluctant dealt with this product, considering difficulties and toughness in formulating.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 9 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 17, 2011

Hi all,

As a pharmacist who worked in cosmetics, I see many ingredients such as vitamins, antioxidants and other common functional ingredients, are used in treatment and personal care products. They are also used in color and decorative cosmetics and well as hair care and other products.. In fact, these common ingredients are used in almost every cosmetic product to make standard claims.

Below is just a quick short list of some of these common ingredients :

  • Hyaluronic Acid (you will see this listed on almost every ingredient label for treatment products)
  • Herbal Extracts (this list gets longer and longer as more vegetable derived ingredients become available)
  • PCA Derivatives (oil or water soluble varieties – used to retain moisture in the skin)
  • Vitamins and Antioxidants such as Vitamin C, Resveritrol and Co-Enzyme Q10 (these are highly substantive)
  • Essential Fatty Acids and Complexes (Omega-3 and Omega-6)
  • Functional Proteins and Amino Acids (many are multi-functional – both in activity and aesthetics)
  • Components of Natural Moisturizing Factor (to replace materials in skin that may have been lost or reduced)
  • Ingredients for wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-irritation responses (true treatment ingredients)
  • Ceramides and other Cellular Enhancement Ingredients (healthy cells make for healthy skin)

Although there are many other ingredients that can be included in the list, these are some of the most common ingredients used to make the most basic treatment claims.

This have led to a virtual blurring of the boundaries between classical cosmetic and pharmaceutical. While the boundary is clearly defined by the the customer level,the understanding is that a $20 face cream can feed the skin with vitamins, anti-oxidants and essential fatty acids. This idea of feeding the face back to beauty has a contributed to the mindset that ageing is a treatable condition that can be fixed if the ‘food’ is if you’re ageing badly, you must be feeding your skin junk ( the same analogy if we eat to much junk food, will jeopardize our heatlh..).

What does our skin really think about these products we slather onto it? I wonder if rubbed into our face, this will ever hit its biological target ?

Cosmetic or Drug?

In theUnited States, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act defines cosmetics as “article intended to be rubbed, pour, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body… for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance.” Examples include blush, lipstick, nail polish, shampoo, and toothpaste.

But once the product claims venture into diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease and alleges to affect the structure or any function of the body, the product is a drug. Drugs are subject to stringent regulations, labeling (actives are called out from other ingredients) and testing requirements, which result in the investment of both time and money.

Products can be both cosmetic and drug if the intended use meets both definitions. Moisturizers with sunscreens, moisturizing hand sanitizers, and anti-dandruff shampoos all fall into this category. These cosmetic/drug combinations are subject to the regulations for both drugs and cosmetics. They are considered OTC or Over the Counter drugs.


One other classification of products is cosmeceuticals. The off-controversial but significant contributor to our field, dermatologist Dr. Albert Kligman, coined the term cosmeceutical almost 30 years ago. He defined cosmeceuticals as topically applied products that do have a physiological effect on the skin.  Kligman, however, intended to draw attention to the potential biological effects of all cosmetics that did not just merely camouflage or add color. In fact he said it was “scientifically silly to pretend that cosmetics did not do anything” and that cosmetics might actually be doing a lot of good.

The term cosmeceutical is not recognized as part of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Can cosmetics ever be good for you?

In pharmaceuticals, the prospect of being able to deliver a ‘therapeutic’ or ‘useful’ dose of an active through the skin, such as several common ‘patches’ including those for pain relief, for weaning the patient off nicotine, administering progesterone to menopausal women, simply because their actions are systemic rather than local. All these actives get into the blood stream via percutaneous absorption.

In cosmetics, such method via percutaneous absorption is absolutely out of question. It contravenes the legal definition of cosmetic. These cosmetic products are only permitted to deliver their actives locally (into the dermis or albeit more deeply).

In order to work out if cosmetics really can be good, let’s investigate the role of Vit. E, Vit. A and Vit. C play in skin and bodily health. In 1990’s, a highly active cosmeceautical would have contained the mandatory Vit. A, C and E in their basic oil-soluble form. Today’s product contain vitamin infused extract, nano-delivery systems and pre-stabilized blends. It is reasonable to expect that these super vitamins will last longer, go deeper and hit harder than their forerunners.

The problems caused by deficiencies of Vitamins A, C and E are well documented and telling on the appearance. Visual symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency are dry skin and hair and broken fingernails while being deficient in Vitamin C not only leads to dry skin and hair but also the possibility of bleeding and sore gums, trouble with skin healing, bruising and general pallor. Vitamin E deficiency is less common but those affected many find that the condition precipitates the formation of age spots and leads to a reduction of muscle tone.

There have been many studies looking at the fate of Vitamin E in topically applied products including the trial outlined in the textbook of cosmetic dermatology by Robert Baran which shows that 38.6% of a 5% alcoholic Vitamin E solution had travelled into the viable epidermis and the dermis of a rats skin 6 hours after it was applied. However, vitamin E has also been found to cause contact dermatitis in susceptible individuals – a situation that is not found when vitamin E is ingested.

The topical activity of Vitamin A has also been widely studied and is one of only a relatively small range of actives prescribed by dermatologists to help correct premature skin ageing. When applied topically retinoids bind to the retinoid receptors in the epidermis and that is probably one key reason why this active when applied topically is so successful – it doesn’t have to travel very far! However, just as with the Vitamin E, a topical application of vitamin A can lead to some unwanted side-effects including dryness and flaking, reddening of the skin and sensitivity to sunlight. Again adverse reactions to vitamin A are seldom reported in adults via the oral route as long as doses are kept below the daily minimum.

Finally we come to vitamin C, an active that has been proven to stimulate collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures. The major problem faced by formulators wanting to use vitamin C is the fact that the biologically active form, L-Ascorbic Acid is highly prone to oxidation and so the less active but more stable forms – ascorbic palmitate and ascorbyl phosphate esters are utilized. On analysis the epidermis is found to contain more than five times the level of vitamin C than the dermis which seems logical given the vitamins key role as an antioxidant. This fact give kudos to the suggestion that a topical vitamin C product could be good for the skin as it is highly likely that as long as the stability issues are addressed and the base vehicle is adequate the vitamin could reach its biological target without contravening the legal definition of a cosmetic. Further evidence of the benefits of a topically delivered Vitamin C dose can be found in a number of papers looking at the skins ability to tolerate UV induced damage. The two studies found in researching this piece show a strong relationship between skin fortified with a topical vitamin C dose and its ability to withstand UV radiation.

Yet again it would seem that cosmetics could indeed be good for you.

In summing up a number of conclusions can be arrived at from the evidence presented. The evidence points to it being true that Vitamins A, C and E can all initiate a cosmetic benefit via topical application without contravening the definition of a cosmetic. Further, these vitamins can, in many cases boost the skins ability to deal with both intrinsic and extrinsic antagonists – the sun, visual affects of hormonal imbalance, irritation, and dryness. Finally we see that it is possible to plot the relationship between the applied dose and the visible outcome in a similar way to that experienced with an oral application. However, we have also seen evidence supporting the theory that topically delivered vitamins is tolerated to a lesser degree than those applied orally. There are also physical and chemical hurdles to overcome when seeking to administer an active vitamin dose through the skin route. These counter-indications are not insignificant and may, in some cases prove to be an insurmountable challenge.

On balance it seems that cosmetics CAN indeed be good for you but if you think that getting your vitamins at the day spa will allow you to gorge on fast food and caffeine don’t expect any miracles. Vitamin infused cosmetics may be doing your skin good but as far as the rest of your body is concerned, it’s back to the salad bar.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– It’s time to get up close and personal with our skin product relationship in a bid to answer the question about the benefits and discover if cosmetics can ever be good to us..

– Cosmetic can indeed be good for us.

– A healthy life is the answer for healthy skin ( read my post about anti-aging cosmetics )

– Pharma-cosmetics/ Cosmeceuticals will be the trend of personal care industry development.

– Cosmetic industry is getting closer to pharmaceutical industry and should now get inspired by the same manufacturing process.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , | 3 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 7, 2011


This time I’d like to write about bar soap, especially transparent soap. Well, bar soap market is expected to grow at a very healthy rate of 5%-6% over the next five years. Hence, the bar soap business is a very interesting market. The bar soap has evolved over the years from purely cleansing product to a product that now offers multiple benefits and functionality. As a consequence, the bar soap is continuously being challenged to provide more value-added features in the area of multifunctionality, ex :

1. Soaps with extracts, oils and polyols, such as honey oil, chamomile, tea tree oil, etc.

2. Soaps that offer personal protection and hygiene such as in the anti-bacterial domain.

3. Soaps that provide skin care properties such as moisturizing, mildness, etc.

4. Soaps with a combination of mild synthetic detergents.

5. Soap bars with distinctive appearance, perfume impact and release, and bar feel.

Well, what is soap actually? It is a sodium salt of fatty acids from oils or fats of both animal and vegetable origin. A strong alkaline base is reacted with a fatty acid such as those found in tallow, palm oil, or coconut oil. The base used is almost always sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. This process is known as saponification. In South East Asia, soaps are primarily made from palm oil blended with either coconut oil or palm kernel oil. India uses hardened rice bran oil, China, cattle and sheep tallow and lard. Australia generally uses tallow. A typical blend would be 80% palm oil or tallow and 20% palm kernel oil or coconut. The 80/20 formulation gives about the right balance of lather, rate of wear, cleaning ability and hardness.

Sodium hydroxide (lye) makes a hard soap, while potassium hydroxide makes a softer or gelatinous soap. Hard soap can be made transparent by the addition of alcohol to ground soap particles after the soap-making process has completed. Liquid soaps and some cream soaps are translucent without the addition of alcohol, primarily due to a higher water content in the soap.

The process of saponification can be devided into COLD PROCESS SOAP, MELT AND POUR SOAP, HOT PROCESS SOAP, etc. In my case, I use MELT AND POUR SOAP methods in regards of its simpleness. I purchased clear soap base in blocks to be melted down, colored and fragranced, and placed into molds ( of course, you can make clear soap from scratch, similar to those of cold process but take a few steps further by adding alcohol for clarity and a glycerin and sugar mix to suspend and enhance the clarity ..). Hope got a chance to practice it..:)

I used : TRANSPARENT ULTRA TR as soap transparent base, GLUCAM P-20 2% as humectant, Vit. E acetate 1% as antioxidant, fragrance green apple 3% and green color qs.

First, I melt the base at 70C . Remove from the heat, let cool to 50C and add humectant, vit E, fragrance apple and green color. Mix slowly to avoid bubble. Then pour into the plastic mold as quickly as possible and spray down foam with alcohol. Spritz until smooth. Then freeze the soap in the fridge for one hour  (this doesn’t hurt the soap at all). The faster the cooler, the better! 

Give the soap about two weeks to dry and become even more transparent and longer-lasting.

A couple more tips :

  • When unmolding use rubber gloves so you won’t get fingerprint on the soap.
  • Frozen soap will look cloudy; let it rest first before checking for clarity.
  • After freezing, let soaps thaw for about 3 or 4 minutes and they should pop out.
  • If you find your soap is sticky or not clear after removing from the molds, you can cut it back, melted down. Add a couple more alcohol, stir and pour through a sieve. Then pour into your molds. Make sure you do this within the first couple of days because you risk evaporating alcohol, which reduces transparency and makes sticky soap.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– Well, certainly it takes a bit of practice to make transparent soap, but these are the steps and once you get the hang of it, it’s rather matter how you make it, by melt and pour method or from the scratch.

– If your soap fails the first time, it can nearly ALWAYS be saved! However, it is usually recommended to give rebatched/remelted soap a couple of weeks in which to harden up so that it will last longer.

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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on May 12, 2011


This time I choose this topics, SURFACTANTS.., because this is a really fascinating topic and while in laboratory, it is really amusing to do activity with them. In cosmetic, surfactants are really the cornerstone of nearly all formulations.. to have a great formulation, we have to know the chemistry of surfactants. In industry, surfactant is multi-billion pounds business (Figure 1) with markets everywhere from household detergents to explosives (Table 1).

Fig. 1 The global surfactant market

Table 1. The major surfactant markets

Value (£m)

 Quantity (kt)

Household detergents



Industrial and institutional cleaning



Personal care



Crop protection






Paints and coatings



Textile spin finish



Textile auxiliaries






Emulsion polymerisation












Plastic additives



Pulp and paper












Surfactants (surface active agents) can be broadly defined as compounds which, when dissolved in water, concentrate at surfaces (interfaces) such as water-air or water- oil. All these surfactant molecules have in common the same basic molecular structurea hydrophile attached to a lipophile– and it is this nature that makes them adsorb at surfaces. The hydrophile is attracted to water in preference to lipid-like substanoes (hydrocarbons such as oil and grease) whereas the lipophile is attracted to these in preference to water (see fig. 2)

Fig.2 Surfactant basic molecular structure

It is the amphiphilic nature of surfactant molecules that makes them bifunctional. This can be seen when oil/grease and water come together. No matter how much energy is expended in getting them to mix, the oil and water will always separate into two distinct phases. The intermolecular forces between water molecules and between oil molecules are stronger than the forces between water and oil molecules. Added surfactant molecules adsorb at the oil-water interface, where they orient themselves such that the hydrophile is in the water and the lipophile is in the oil. With a little agitation the oil becomes dispersed/removed in the water and the surfactant acts as an emulsifying agent (fig.3).

Fig.3 How surfactant work 

The first surfactant, namely soap, was and still is, made by the alkaline hydrolisis of animal fats (tallow) or vegetable oils.. a process known as saponification ( Fatty acid + Base = Soap ). The next surfactants to be developed were the sulphates and sulphonates of vegetable oils eg. reaction of castor oil with sulphuric acid. Later, the development of sulphonation and sulphation processes using other oils as reactants led to a move away from natural and renewable plant oils and animal fats to the sulphonation of petroleum products eg. alkyl benzene sulfonatis (ABSs)linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LABSs), changing the traditional soap powders to detergent powders for household laundry.

Progress was not confined to the sulphonation of different oils, but was soon accompanied by ethoxylation, in which a few or many ethylene oxide (EO) molecules react with a fatty alcohol – which may be synthetic or plant derived – to make the surfactant molecule eg. alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ether sulphates and alkyl phenol ethoxylates. Along with the development of ether technology came the polymerisation of ethylene oxide with propylene oxide(PO) to give EO-PO copolymers – surfactants that are totally reliant on petrochemicals as raw materials. Recently, developed surfactants are an attempt to satisfy the modern consumers’ desire for products to be ‘more natural’.  These are surfactants derived from the carbohydrates sorbitol, sucrose, glucose and from plant oils such as coconut or palm kernel eg. sorbitan esters, sucrose esters, alkyl polyglucosides (AGs) and alkyl glucamides.  Sorbitan esters are used as emulsifiers in cosmetics and the sucrose esters in food manufacture. The alkyl polyglucosides find application as detergents rather than as emulsifiers and are making inroads into some everyday products.

Lipophiles are usually similar from one surfactant to another but hydrophiles show a range of chemical types and this is the basis for surfactant classification: anionic, cationic, non-ionic and amphoteric(Fig 4).

Fig 4. Structures of some common surfactants

anionic surfactant

cationic surfactant

non-ionic surfactant

amphoteric surfactant      

Anionic surfactants, which include soap, are the most widely used for cleaning processes because many are excellent detergents. In anionic surfactants the hydrophile comprises some highly electronegative atoms, making these molecules strongly polar. The counterion is usually a small cation such as sodium but occasionally may be a larger cation such as ammonia or amines. Anionic surfactants also tend to be good solubilizers and are relatively nontoxic. Examples of anionic surfactant groups include  sulfonic acid salts (taurates, isethionates, olefin sulfonates, sulfosuccinates)alcohol sulfates (sodium lauryl sulfate/SLS, ammonium lauryl sulfate/ALS, sodium laureth sulfate/SLES) , alkylbenzene sulfonatesphosphoric acid esters, andcarboxylic acid salts (stearic acid/sodium stearate).

Cationic surfactants, in contrast, comprise a long chain hydrocarbon as the lipophile with a quaternary amine nitrogen as hydrophile, and a halide ion as counterion. An important property of cationics is that they are attracted to surfaces carrying a negative charge, upon which they adsorb strongly. Proteins and synthetic polymers can thus be treated with cationics to provide desirable surface characteristics(ie. hair conditioners & fabric softeners are cationic surfactants). Cationic surfactants tend to be toxic and are therefore not widely used in environmental applications at this time. Ex.   include polyamines and their salts, quaternary ammonium salts (Quats), and amine oxides.  

Non-ionic surfactants are characterized by hydrophilic head groups that do not ionize appreciably in water. They second to anionics in cleaning applications and are frequently used in conjunction with them (i.e., used as cosurfactants). Nonionic surfactants tend to be good solubilizers and are relatively nontoxic. An important group of non-ionics includes those where the hydrophile comprises a chain of ethoxy groups and is known as the ethoxylates. Varying the number of ethoxy groups in the chain adjusts the amount of hydrophilic character in the final products. Examples include polyoxyethylenated alkylphenols, alcohol ethoxylates, alkylphenol ethoxylates, and alkanolamides .

Amphoteric surfactants comprise a long hydrocarbon chain (lipophile) attached to a hydrophile containing both positive and negative charges, which give it the properties of a zwitterion. The simplest amphoterics can therefore behave as a cation or anion depending on pH. Mild and with low irritancy, amphoterics are widely used in shampoos. Examples include Sodium Lauriminodipropionate and Disodium Lauroamphodiacetate.

When surfactants are put into solutions, the molecules have a tendency to line up in a certain way depending on the solution composition, the concentration of the surfactant, and the temperature. In a water solution with extremely low surfactant concentrations, the molecules tend to bounce around randomly without forming structures. But at the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) they arrange themselves in spherical structures called micelles. On the outer layer of the spheres are the hydrophilic parts of the surfactant molecule and on the inner layer are the lipophilic parts. It’s a bit like a cream filled donut (fig.5)

Fig.5 Micelle formation

This interfacial activity of surfactants (CMC = Critical Micelle Concentration) gives rise to a wide range of surface chemistry functions of surfactants such as:  wetting,  emulsifyingsolubilising, foaming/defoamingrheology-modifying,  antistatic,  ‘glossing‘, lubricity and surface conditioning. In cosmetics, surfactants are useful for the following application :

1. Cleansing Surfactants

The useful thing about micelles is that they can help suspend oil in water. When a small amount of oily materials is put into an aqueous solution of surfactants, it will migrate into the center portion of the micelle. So, when you put a surfactant solution on a surface like hair or skin, the oil that is there will be drawn away from the surface and into the micelles. When the surfactant solution is rinsed away, the surface is clean.

2. Foaming

Foam is another characteristic of surfactant solutions so you’ll need surfactants if you want your product to foam. Essentially, foam is the entrapment of air in liquids and the alignment of the surfactant molecules helps keep the foam stable. It should be noted that foam itself is not related to the ability of a product to clean. But consumers expect cleansing products to foam so as a cosmetic formulator, you’ll have to add foaming surfactants.

3. Emulsification

While cleansing cosmetics remove oils, many cosmetic products are design to add oily materials to the skin and hair. These ingredients usually can’t be applied directly because they have undesirable aesthetic characteristics in their concentrated form. For this reason, cosmetic chemists create emulsions using surfactants. A full exploration of emulsion science is beyond the scope of this entry so suffice it to say, emulsions are semi-stable mixtures of oils and water. A surfactant, or emulsifier, is used to help blend and stabilize the mixtures. In the simplest case, an emulsion formula is made by mixing an oil phase with a water phase and a surfactant. The micelles created by the surfactant entrap the oil in their centers and it remains suspended throughout the mixture. Products like creams and lotions are typically emulsions. When the product is applied to the skin or hair, the surfactant micelles break open and deliver the oily materials.

4. Solubilization

The problem with most emulsions is that they usually create opaque products. However, there are times when a cosmetic chemist wants a clear formula but still wants to blend an oil in a mostly water formula. Fortunately, there are surfactants that have the ability to create particles so small that light passes through them and the solutions remain clear. Molecules that do this are solubilizing surfactants. They are used to blend oily materials like fragrances or natural ingredients into clear solutions. An example would be a surfactant like Polysorbate 20.

5. Conditioning

Since surfactants often contain an “oily” part on their molecule, they have conditioning properties that can improve the feel and look of the surfaces of skin and hair. For them to work this way, the surfactants have to be left behind and also be non-irritating. This can be achieved through a leave-on cosmetic product or by using surfactants that can bond to surfaces through an electrostatic charge (more on this later).

6. Special effects

In addition to the four properties discussed, surfactants have a number of other special effects that are useful to formulators. For example, some surfactants have anti-microbial effects so they can be used as a preservative. Certain surfactants can be used to create an elegant, pearly effect in cosmetics to increase their aesthetic appeal. They can be used for thickening systems, reducing irritation and improving formula stability.

The hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) number is an indication of the relative strength of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule and can be used to characterize the relative affinity of surfactants for aqueous and organic phases. A high HLB number generally indicates good surfactant solubility in water, while a low HLB number indicates a lower aqueous solubility and higher relative affinity for the organic phase (e.g., NAPL). A surfactant with a low HLB number can partition significantly into the NAPL phase and form reverse micelles having hydrophilic interiors and lipophilic exteriors (fig.6).  For a particular organic contaminant, optimum aqueous phase solubilization will generally occur at a specific HLB number. Less hydrophobic contaminants (those that are more water soluble) generally require a higher HLB number surfactant to bring about sufficient solubilization.

Fig.6 RM=Reverse Micelle M=Micelle

Note. Blue is aqueous phase & yellow is oily phase

So, that’s it for surfactant discussion! If you have comment, write down below.

andrianto angkadirjo bottom line

– Based on their cleansing power surfactants are classified into primary and secondary or co-surfactants. Based on the chemical structure there are anionic, amphoteric, non-ionic, and quaternary agents.

– There are thousands of different types of surfactants and it can be difficult to know which to use for any specific application.  We need to work with surfactants, talk with our surfactant suppliers and experiment with different blends. Only then will we get a better understanding of these molecules and what we can do with them.

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Anti-Aging Cosmetics..

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on May 6, 2011

Hello everybody,

We are all obsessed with aging, wrinkles and sagging..and of course, with how to undo all of it. For centuries, countless cultures have honored and revered their elders ( wrinkles and all ) but, these days, we worship and kowtow to youth. In 2010, american people doled out a mind-boggling           $10.7 billion for cosmetic procedures. And, according to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2,437,165 people in america got Botox injected into their wrinkles while another 1.3 million had fillers injected into theirs. Then, there’s the $115.5 billion, people in america spend annually on anti-aging skin care products..those topical creams and potions and lotions, with price tag exceeding $300, that we hope will undo the toll time has taken on our faces and bodies. Not to mention the vast array of anti-aging supplements ( resveratrol, collagen booster, oral hyaluronic acid, etc ) that now pepper the shelves of both vitamin shops and beauty aisles alike.

Above are examples ( 6 out of 16 ) some best of the best products which do what people claim .. visibly reduce the signs of aging without a needle or invasive plastic surgery.

There are two ways in which skin aging occurs, intrinsic or chronological aging and extrinsic aging related to factors like sun exposure and smoking. Here’s just the skin drawing :

Intrinsic aging is a gradual degradation that takes place over time on all body sites. In aged skin the synthesis of collagen, which provides structure to the dermis, is diminished and increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase contribute to degradation of existing collagen. Elastin fibers become disorganized and less effective. Other changes include increased dryness, flattened papillary dermis, and decreased stratum corneum turnover. Gravity and facial expressions, although some might consider extrinsic, can’t be fully avoided and I tend to think of them as part of the intrinsic aging process.

Extrinsic aging is brought on by external factors and accelerates intrinsic aging. We can exert some level of control over extrinsic factors. Sun exposure and smoking are two factors we currently know the most about. While some exposure to the sun is healthy, due to synthesis of Vitamin D and its mood boosting ability, tanning and erythema (redness) are indications of damage. Although UVB is the culprit in sunburns, it is the UVA portion of the spectrum that causes deeper damage. Production of collagen degrading MMPs are stimulated, abnormal elastin deposits accumulate in a condition known as solar elastosis, and vascular factors which encourage telangiectasia, or spider veins, are produced. Additionally, irregularities in melanin production result in uneven skin tone and age spots. Repeated long-term exposures can cause more serious skin damage manifesting in conditions like actinic keratoses or skin cancers.  Nicotine in cigarettes constricts blood vessels limiting availability of oxygen and nutrients to the skin. The number and depth of wrinkles are increased while repeated facial movements also cause a higher degree of wrinkling around the mouth and eyes..

Therefore, primary prevention starts with sun protection and avoidance of cigarette smoking. Secondary prevention includes the use of sun protecting agents, dermocosmetic substances, and anti-aging compounds. Finally, tertiary anti-aging measures include minimally invasive cosmetic procedures such as chemical peels, microderm-abrasion, soft tissue fillers, non-ablative laser rejuvenation, radio-frequency techniques and botulinum toxin.

Modern anti-aging preparations are based on recent finding that in aging the balance between collagen synthesis and collagen fragmentation is altered. Oxidative stress ( exposure to UV light, environmental pollutants, irritants & smoke ) and decreased estrogen levels during menopause are also important factors in aging process. It is also known that well-moisturized skin is less prone to oxidative injuries and premature aging. Hence, the major targets of anti-aging agents are oxidative stress & collagen metabolism. Moisturizing agents form another important part of anti-aging agents. Right now, over 60 botanicals are marketed, the most important include : teas, soy, pomegranate, date, grapeseed, pycnogenol, horse chestnut, German chamomile, curcumin, comfrey, allantoin and aloe. Only, green and black tea, soy, pomegranate & date have published clinical trials. There is even a larger number of synthetic compounds to have anti-aging properties. Many have antioxidant properties, alter the collagen metabolism or completely different mode of action, ex. TIMP2 ( protein, biotechnologically produced, inhibits enzymes that degrade collagen in the skin ), Coenzyme Q 10 ( ubiquinone, antioxidant, promotes collagen & elastin synthesis ), Argireline ( peptide, anti wrinkle, inhibits facial skin muscle tightening ), DHEA ( hormone, protective, regenerating ), Calcium PCA ( mineral, stimulates cells differentiation & synthesis of epidermal lipids ), Lacto-Ceramides ( ceramides packed in milk-liposomes, replenishes own skin-ceramides, recovers barrier function ), Pullulan ( natural sugar, skin tightening effect, stimulates collagen synthesis ), Ferulic Acid ( phenolic compound, antioxidant, antiinflammatory ), Genistein ( isoflavone compound, antioxidant, protective ), Phyllanthus Emblica ( polyphenols & flavonoids, antioxidant, skin lightening/whitening ), Ectoin ( from bacteria, skin relaxing, moisturizing, protects from cell damage ), Dipalmitoyl Hydroxyproline ( amino acid, contracts collagen, moisturizing, inhibits ‘age enzymes’ ), Provitamin B5 ( vitamin, moisturizing, improves skin elasticity, regenerating ) and still many others..

The questions raised about evidences these products actually work!! Some best products do. They visibly reduce the signs of aging, ie. skin tone is much more even, the dark blotches on neck have faded noticeably, fine lines are fading, the reduction in the ‘laugh’ lines is amazing, plumping the skin & filling in linesit really works to brighten skinmaking skin look radiant, “immediately” reduces eye puffiness, got rid of skin discolorationmade my pores look smallerfor “sloughing off dead skin cells” to reveal “soft, supple and bright” skinwrinkles are diminishing, makes saggy skin firmerinstantly firming and tighteningmy eyes make me look much younger than my actual agehelps with fine lines, puffiness and dark circlesdiminishes crow’s feet with “remarkable results”“instantly hydrates” and “smoothes fine lines and wrinkles”dark circles disappear along with puffinessnot only has reduced the small wrinkles on my face and neck, but has made my skin so soft and healthyfour weeks time skin has become more luminous, vibrant, firmer and lifted … [and] lines around the mouth and eyes [are] almost gone…..

The truth is, it takes three to five weeks for new skin cells to grow, so regardless of whatever product you apply, if it works, it’ll take at least that much time for results to show.

So, what do you think? Have you any comment or experience? Just write your comment below.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– Today, there is a surplus of anti-aging skin care products like creams, serums, gels and powders that are all claiming to be ‘fountain of youth’. Some work and some are pure market hype.

– Presently, there is no proven way to delay, even if slightly, the human aging process.

–  Regularly washing your face, using age-appropriate skin care (ex. sunscreen lotions), drinking more water and living a healthier life style in general are just another approach in finding younger skin…and delay aging process.

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