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Posts Tagged ‘polymer’


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on June 14, 2012


How are you guys? How’s your life going on? Hope it’s all fine. In this tough time, only the beware guys will survive. I’m really sorry not posting lately since the past six months. But today, I’m back! Thanks also for all the comments saying that you found something from this blog. I’m really grateful guys..

This time I’d like to post something about exfoliator/peeling gel. This one draws my attention.. unlike chemical peels which use strong acid, this peeling is very gentle on the skin and only removes the unwanted dead skin and it does not dry or thin the skin and cause it to be vulnerable to sunlight.

This is the product :

the innovative exfoliator/peeling gel

the clear gel

white beads form to remove dead skin cells

1. Creating innovative cosmetic products

To create innovative cosmetic products, we need to know about and find niche markets. A cosmetic niche market is no different than a niche market in some other field. Essentially, a niche market is a sub set of a larger market. In practical terms, it is a smaller group of people with some specific characteristic that sets them apart.

Now that we know niche markets are smaller segments of consumer groups, this is important.  Ex.  Creating innovative new products will have to make products different and specific like solve wrinkles, acne, hair loss, hair growth, etc. Like the above product, it is sort of exfoliator, but include no conventional scrubs, micro-dermabrasions, AHA, peel, etc. The formulation is just perfect – it is non-abrasive, doesn’t tingle skin like glycolic acid does, effective but gentle, and it provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. The skin appears much more clear, translucent, smooth and soft without stripping its natural oil after each application…. some say 1 bottle is sold every 20 seconds, awesome right?

2. List of Ingredients

So, after browsing/searching a while, I came across this formula..

R/                                                  %


Water ……………………….. ad 100

Cetrimonium Chloride ………10.5

Propyl Glycol ……………………7

Alcohol …………………………… 1

Perfume ………………………….. qs

PEG40 HCO ……………………… 0.2

Preservative …………………….. qs

At first, I still don’t get it and wonder :

– where’s the scrub?

– what the centrimonium do in this formula? since we know this is conditioning agent for hair.

I have to make these clear first, before I step forward. Actually, after rubbing the gel on the skin there will be chemical reaction between cetrimonium chloride and carbomer, thickener, which will form white beads/residues ( If you reduce one of the ingredients, you will find out the residues will lesser or if you change the thickener, using cellulose group, there won’t be any white beads formed ). This reaction occurs instanly and the white beads/residues will act as peeling agent which remove the upper dead skin layers ( the claim said that 0.01 mm of old skin can be removed ). The removal process is very soft, gentle and provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. After washing, the skin feel moist, soften, translucent and bright.

This is really great innovation product. No wonder this product is very success in the market place.

3. Gathering raw materials

a. Carbomer

Yes, carbomer is one of the most revolutionary raw material. It is a swellable polymer that can create clear gels and elegant skin care products with a light feeling and good application properties. That made it easier to formulate stable skin care creams. It is difficult to create clear gels with good aesthetics without these polymers. That’s why carbomers also called as ‘formulator’s best friend’.

Carbomer is typically reserved to describe high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid that are lightlyl cross-linked with allyl ethers of  polyalcohols eg. tetraallyl pentaerythritol (TAPE) and hexaallyl sucrose.

polyacrylic acid (PAA)

general structure of carbomer

The National Formulary (NF) lists traditional carbomers individually according to their specific chemistry and properties, eg. solution viscosity, using numbers associated with the trade names, eg. Carbomer 934 ( 30,500- 39,400 cP ), Carbomer 940 ( 40,000-60,000 cP ) etc. For modern carbomers synthetized using benzene-free processes, the NF has adopted the terms carbomer homopolymer ( polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols), carbomer copolymer ( copolymer of acrylic acid and a long chain alkyl methacrylate cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols ) and carbomer interpolymer ( carbomer homopolymer or carbomer copolymer that contains a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and a long chain alkyl acid esters ) to describe the various species of carbomers.

In contrast, the INCI Dictionary reserves the term carbomer for crosslinked copolymers of acrylic acid and it names crosslinked copolymer of acrylic acid with other comonomers as acrylate crosspolymers, eg. acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Well, I hope we’re not’s all just terminology.

Now, we’ll talk about properties of carbomers :

1. Appearance : fluffy, white, hygroscopic powders with a slight acetic acid odor.

2. Variety differing principally by : the type of process solvent used (ie. benzene vs non benzene), the type and level of crosslinker employed and the addition of optional additives to improve wetting and dispersibility.

3. Nontoxic and exhibit little or no irritation potential to skin and eyes at concentrations employed in cosmetics and personal care products.

4. Impurities : residual polymerization solvents, unreacted monomers (eg. acrylic acid), acetic acid, proprionic acid, trace heavy metals, etc.

5. Dispersibility : readily dispersible in water and in mixture of  polar organic solvents with water such as 70% w/w ethanol-water solution.

6. pH : 2,5-3,5. ( Prior neutralization with a basic pH adjuster, eg. NaOH, TEA, these dispersions DO NOT possess significant viscosity and can be hazy. Upon neutralization of the carboxylic acid groups, the carbomer becomes ionized and swells to several hundred times its original volume due to electrostatic repulsions between the negatively charged carboxylate groups and osmotic swelling due to the captive counterions. The resulting microgel dispersions, sometimes referred to as mucilages, are clear fluids that display high viscosities and also exhibit high yield value.. the resistance of a fluid to initial flow when a stress is applied. ).

b. Centrimonium chloride

This ingredient belong to surfactant group. I’ve post about surfactant. If you like to read about it, click here.

4. Creating and revising prototype

After having complete understanding, I tried to make small scale in the frugal laboratory using simple tools like mortar/stamper, electric heater, glassware, etc. This just the steps :

1. Weighing the ingredients.


2. Mixing the water and humectant.

mixing water+humectant

3. Dispersing the carbomer until clear gel is formed.

dispersing carbomer..

4. Pouring the centrimonium chloride into the clear gel.

adding centrimonium chloride..

5. Adding emollient.

checking the gel..

5. Testing the prototypes

The first type of testing I want to do is to use the product on myself. Since I have experience with the target product I will know how close I am to matching it. No test will be more revealing as to whether I’ve copied the product than when I test in on myself. And then I’ll make note of any differences I experience.

the prototype..

apply the gel to my skin..

white beads produced after rubbing..

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

1. This product came from Japan and Japanese women are famous for their love of cosmetics.  So whenever a beauty product has been voted number 1 in Japan, it is the best selling pitch for others too.

2. To create innovative cosmetic products, we  need to know about and find niche markets.

So that’s all, if you find something please leave your comments below.


Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , | 16 Comments »

Copy Nail Polish Product..

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 24, 2011

Hi all,

Cosmetics and their use as decorative applications for the human body have been in existence for centuries and are used extensively throughout the world. As a multibillion-dollar industry, cosmetics have many different applications, including the use of lipstick, eyeliner, facial creams, powders, highlighters and nail polishes or lacquers. Used primarily by women, the extent of cosmetic use is extraordinary, and has made many of the cosmetics producing and marketing firms very profitable endeavors.

The nail polish sector of the cosmetic industry is extremely competitive. New colors, combinations, including clear formulations and varitation thereof are constantly hold onto a bigger piece of the market share. The scientific research that is poured into these endeavors is considerable and new products and/or brand names are continually being introduced.

According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the global market for nail products, which includes nail varnishes, enamels, nail varnish removers, treatments, home manicure products, including cuticle softeners and nail strengtheners, reached $4.9 billion in 2010, with hand care products, including hand moisturizers, emollients, and soothers and hydrators for skin prone to redness, irritation, or eczema, reaching $2.3 billion. Nail products in the US reached $800 million in retail value, and US hand care products were valued at $110 million.

Euromonitor notes that nail polish was the fastest growing category in the sector, registering 8% current value growth in 2009, an improvement on the 7% growth in the previous year. In addition, the DIY (do it yourself) trend helped drive 9% value growth in nail care products in 2009. Budget conscious consumers continue to give themselves manicures and pedicures at home, while nail polishes continue to benefit from new launches. According to Euromonitor, as a result of the growth in sales, nail products also saw a flurry of company activity, with, Coty acquiring the OPI nail polish brand.

Marvelous..superb..tons of business opportunities..

What are nail polishes? They are essentially comprised of pigments and/or dyes that are incorporated and suspended in various solvents and bases. The polishes are also stabilized in the suspensions to protect the appearance of the product and to prevent the pigments, during the shelf life of the product, from floating, settling, separating, or striating the polish. Nail polishes are also formulated so that the film formed thereby is tough and durable and adheres to the human nail and will not readily crack, chip, peel, splinter, or become brittle after application and during wear. The toughness should last for an extended period of time, thereby enhancing the durability of the nail polish enamel.

I’ve been assigned to copy nail polish/nail enamel/nail lacquer. It’s been more complicated than the first one, see here, If you’re wondering what was I doing about it, I conveniently presented it to you. I devided into several steps, ie :

1. The Target.

12 different shades to copy

2. Create formulas.

There are many sources available :

US PATENTS & many free-online formularies of suppliers, magazines and other sources.

3. Gathering raw materials.

I think this is the toughest part of the job. Because I work in small company, I’m unable to meet with the sales reps from all suppliers as many actually don’t know about the existence of the company. Really gathering from scratch..:). But I just thought this as a kind of mentally be patience, not easily give up. An interesting story when I called the principle reps office in Singapore just to ask their reps office in Indonesia. But the try is worthy. The reps in Indonesia really proved to bring great help to this project, by supplying great data and sample..:)

3. Create dye solution for color matching.

To match the color with the target, I started with 0.1% w/w oil solutions of the colors. Fortunately, the colors for nail polished used to comprise of D&C Red #6, #7, #34, D&C Yellow #5 Lakes, Titanium Dioxide, Mica, Iron Oxides, Iron Black Aluminium Silicate and Iron Blue Aluminium Silicate. 

After mixed it, compare to the target and determine whether it is to dark or too light. In the next attempt, double the amount of color if too light or cut it in half if too dark. Continue this process of doubling or halving dye levels until get something that matches. If done properly, we should get pretty close in 7 tries. Also, do not forget to record how much color we’ve used.

4. Make solution for Nitrocellulose.

As Nitrocellulose is dangerous/explosive if not handling properly, so it is safer to keep this material in the form of solution. First, wetting the Nitrocellulose with 30% Isopropyl Alcohol, and then dissolved with ester solvent such as Ethyl Acetate. First we don’t have clear solution, but with keeping it in tight container, we’ll have clear solution within days.

Well, now one of the crucial point is taken care, keeping the Nitrocellulose safe! What a relief..:)

5. Prepare the nail polish base.

I devided this base into 2 : clear lacquer base and thixotropic clear lacquer base.

a. Clear Lacquer Base 

clear nail lacquer

To make this clear lacquer base, I just mixed acrylates copolymer with solvent like alcohol and butyl acetate or acetone. This will make a clear one, different from nitrocellulose or its derivates which produce clear, yellowish solution.

Thanks to God ! When I try this clear base by applying to my nail, this proved to be a good one.. Have glossy,  proper viscosity, good adhesion & flexibility, chip & scratch resistance.

So relief..just half way left to finish the product.

b. Thixotropic Clear Lacquer

To complete gelification need 1-day standing

Composition consist of clear lacquer + attapulgite, a hydrated magnesium aluminosilicate. Attapulgite occurs as tightly packed bundles of submicron particles whose lathe-like structure gives it unique colloidal and sorptive properties. As thickener and suspending agent, they provide benefits including easy dispersion, formulating latitude and long term stability.

Both ingredients (clear lacquer & attapulgite) have to be dispersed using a high mixing speed, eg. with the help of an Ultra-Turrax apparatus or a dissolver. High-speed mixing creates optimum dispersion, thus rapid & maximum thickening. Intensive, slow-speed mixing, such as with a double planetary-type mixer, may take longer to develop near maximum viscosity.

During this process the lacquer becomes warm. After cooling a jelly stucture starts to appear. This gelification process is completely after about 1 day of standing. The amount of attapulgite is reduced as solids rise. Pigmented systems may need less than 0.5% for suspension or soft-settle, and those with large particles may need 0.5% to 2.0%. These solids content and amount of attapulgite are crucial. Too much will cause the product too thick and can’t be applied smoothly. Too little will cause the opposite, the product will be too thin and difficult to apply.

6. The finished nail lacquer.

Depending on the desired pearl effect, appropriate pearl-pigment dispersion or pure powdered pearl-pigments are added to the thixotropic clear lacquer. Usually between 0.3%-1.5%. Powder pigments from Rona/Merck program can yield attractive effects in nail lacquers, such as :

  • interference pigments for change-effects, eg. Timiron Super Red, Timiron Super Violet, Timiron Super Copper.
  • color lustre pigments for lustre and color, eg. Colorona Sienna, Colorona Copper, Colorona Bronze.

Concentration in the nail lacquer about 1%-1.5%.

The pearl pigment dispersion or the pigment powder is carefully stirred into the thixotropic clear lacquer until homogeneous. A dispersion apparatus should however, on no account be used for this purpose.

Further addition of dye stuffs is possible. Conventional pigments should be dispersed into the thixotropic clear lacquer before the pearl lustre pigments are added, because they need high shear forces for dispersion.

7. Filling nail polish.

The obstacles in filling nail lacquer are small bottles, narrow necks, flammable contents. Manual filling machine for cream might work, but should modify the filling head so that it turn very narrow and can reach the bottom of the pack. Unless, the bubbles will blowing nail polish out of the top of pack.

During the filling, as it is a solvent based product, make sure it is well ventilated. Otherwise, after a couple of dozen packs we’ll be floating on the ceilings..:)

andriantoangkadirjo bottom line

– Nail polish is really very2 competitive cosmetic product. It is the fastest growing category in the sector with highest value growth in the market.

– Nail polish formulation is really unique. Not only cosmetic but also dealing paint formula in general, like car, house,etc. The knowledge in it is vast..No wonder many cosmetic industries are reluctant dealt with this product, considering difficulties and toughness in formulating.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 9 Comments »