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To be like our Lord Jesus Christ.

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on May 20, 2016

Shalom!! This time I want to share another Bible’s Truth that many christians do not know what is exactly they should do in this world as a believer. Without this, they just like a ship that is lost direction, get lost and destroyed.

We are a christian because God have chosen us. So, what next? God also want us to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ, His Son. This is the truth that many christians do not realize it. To be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ, His Son. This is the real goal/destination in our life as a christian during our life in this world. This is a life-time process, not an easy one, like running in a race that is set before us.

So, what is the image of Jesus Christ look like really? What does to be like our Lord Jesus Christs mean? Without getting understanding, it is impossible to be conformed or resembled our Lord Jesus Christ. So this is the image of Jesus Christ : Being in the form of God, He made Himself of no reputation and took upon Him the form of a servant and being found in the fashion as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to God unto death, even the death of the cross. 

The next question : How can we become of no reputation and a servant We can ask the questions directly to Jesus Christ. This is another Truth! Just like a young, wealthy man that came to Jesus and asked Him : What good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? All these things have I kept from my youth, what lack I yet? Jesus said to him to become of no reputation by selling all that he have and giving to the poor, and be a servant by following Him as His disciple. By doing these, the young, wealthy man will exactly conformed to the image of Jesus and have eternal life. But he refused them!!! The young, wealthy man refused to be conformed to the image of Jesus.

What about us now? Knowing the truth, may be we will ask to Jesus, what shall I do to be of no reputation and a servant, and when Jesus answered it, what will we do? Shall we deny it just like the young, wealthy man? Or we obey and do God’s will to be conformed to the image of His Son, Jesus Christ?

Last, by doing God’s will we certainly will enter His Kingdom as His sons, with our Lord Jesus Christ as elder brother. Amien.


As a christian, do we know exactly what to do in this life? Without this knowledge, we will be lost. Knowing the Bible’s Truth about it, make us can face this life easier, more certain, no afraid, no easily intimidated. The Bible’s Truth have make us free!!

Bible’s verses: (…..should be meditated day and night)

  1. Romans 8:29
  2. Philippians 2:6-8
  3. Matthew 19: 16-22


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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on May 5, 2016

Hello everyone!! It is nice to be back again! How are you guys? Hope you’re all good and be blessed. Sorry, it’s been a very long time since my last posting and I’m never expected that I have more than 30 thousand visitors on my blog.

Well, there’s a changing in the topic of my future posting. From now on, I’m only posting about the truths according to the bible, God’s words. I’m not posting about beauty or experience or wisdom anymore.

Why? Because I myself believe the truths in the bible is extremely important. As a guidance for us to carry out our live so we are not lost in this world. Knowing the truths in the bible will make us a free person, we are not the slaves again of sins, fear, worry, greedy. We are free, peaceful man. Lord Jesus said, as long as you are continue in my words, you are my disciples indeed. And you shall know the truths and the truths shall make you free.

This time I will share the truth about “Be grateful in the difficult times”.

As believers, people who believe in Jesus Christ, who called God as Father and who made commitment to be confirmed to the image of Jesus Christ, we will be processed unto a perfect man. All problems, troubles, difficulties which is called as affliction can be used by God in this process.

In this affliction, we should uncover which part of our life that God is being worked on such as : our temperament/easily get angry, our feeling which quickly get offended, or other sins. If we aware of this truth, that affliction is part of God’s plan to process us unto a perfect man, we should be thankful. So, we shouldn’t see affliction as a negative but more as a blessing.

Here are 3 characteristics of temptation that shows a believer is being processed by God :

  1. Common to man. The temptation is common, that most people ever suffered/ experienced. No such thing that happening to us that never happened to other people before. The bible said it is common to man!! Do not afraid!
  2. Able. We are able to endure cause it is no need a superpower, just an ordinary one, a power of usual man. Why? Yes, because our God is faithfull !! God will not let us to be tempted above that we as man, able to endure. God is faithfull.
  3. A way out. There’s always a way out, a way to escape, an end of the problem. Every problem/difficulties/troubles/affliction must have an end. Hallelujah!!

All these problems, difficulties, troubles that bring affliction to our life can be originate from our parents (such as poverty and illness), our own mistake (laziness, carelessness), other people (violence,accident) and situation in the world (war, earthquake)  and God can use all of these to process and for the good of us, that is to be a perfect man.

Just after being a perfect man, next, we will endure another affliction according to our own ministry to serve God or taking His Cross. But this one is light and in a moment and work for us a far more exceeding and eternal glory.

Hallelujah and praise the Lord. Now we have simple understanding the truth in the bible about problems, difficulties, troubles. They’re not merely negative but a blessing, cause God can use all to bring good to us and make us unto a perfect man. While, being a perfect man, God will give us ministry or taking His Cross, to another affliction. But this time will bring us an eternal glory. Amien.

Reflection :

  • If right now, as a believer, we have many problems, such as : illness, financial, job, family, etc …please do not afraid, frustrate, desperate. The truth of the bible has taught us and has made us free and certainly we can give thanks to our God.

Bible’s verses (please….meditate day and night) :

  1. 1 Corinthians 10:13
  2. Romans 8:28
  3. 2 Corinthians 4:17


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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 8, 2012

various types pressed powder cosmetics


This time I’d like to share my experience in copy pressed powder product such as powder cake, pressed-powder fondation, eye-shadow, blush-on, etc. It’s not too difficult as long as we know the basic of making pressed powder product. Because they share the same basic, so once we succed to make a good compac powder, we can develope the formula to pressed powder fondation, eye shadows or blush on.

Frankly, I was more confusing to the terms pressed powder and powder fondation than the proccess of making them. So, this is what I found to describe the difference between them :

Pressed powder refers to powder for oil-control and it’s also used for setting makeup. It has little pigmentation (usually translucent, but some have a little pigmentation to blend better with skin color) and are sort of the ‘cake’ version of loose powder (which is also used to control shine and to set makeup). So it is basically an alternative to blotting sheets and also a more travel-friendly form of loose powder (if loose powder spills it would cause a huge mess).

Powder foundation meanwhile refers to base makeup. This means it has more pigmentation and it’s for evening out skintone. They may look similar to pressed powders sometimes but you can tell it’s a foundation because of the higher pigmentation. There are several types of powder foundation like 2 way cake, mineral foundation etc. (not to confuse you but it is also ok to use powder foundation to set makeup but it’s not used for shine-control).

– When we apply powder foundation, you’re going to see a difference to your skintone – maybe less redness or minor blemishes get covered up. With pressed powder it sinks into your skin and gives a shine-free look without altering your skin blemishes too much.

– Cake foundation has heavier coverage than pressed powder. Usually pressed powder has the weakest coverage compare to cream, cake, and liquid foundation. You can use pressed powder to seal in your foundation (The cake fondation will feel more wet if we touch the product due the the more binders used in it).

– The powder foundation is the one we should use under concealer. Never use pressed powder under concealer… the concealer will show up! Pressed powder is used over liquid foundation and concealer to ‘set it’. If you need to use concealer I seriously think you should use a liquid foundation first, even the powder one may look obvious, then if you need a light covering of pressed powder.

– Do take note that for touching ups, it’s NOT advisable to use a 2 way cake to touch up as mentioned earlier it contains BOTH foundation and powder, so if u use it for touching up, it will make your make up cakey or too thick. It’s still advisable to use a pressed powder for touching up when outside.

1. Anatomy of Pressed Powder

Pressed powder products are another simple product to formulate. These powder systems are based on :

Talc (or mica or sericite if a talc-free formula is desired).

The main ingredients usually talc or mica, depending on how the product is to be positioned. The talc should be small particle size, smooth and pressable. The talc can either be opaque or transparent depending on the qualities desired in the powder.


Fillers have special functionality to enhance the properties of cosmetic formulations. They improve skin feel and use and wear characteristics while some fillers even perfect the appearance of skin. All functional fillers will make your formula feel more luxurious through improved formula texture.

For skin adhesion are metallic soaps such as zinc stearate, magnesium stearate or aluminium stearate. They are usually added at 5-6%.

For the essential slip, adhesion, color laydown and anti greasing properties of the powder we can use polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate or lauryl lysine.

For enhance the feel and application are nylon 12, non-crystalline silica, kaolin, alumina or micronized polyethylene. These ingredients regulate the oil absorbency on the skin for people with very oily skin. They will keep the product in place and provide for longer wear.

Binder for pressing.

After the base formula (talc/mica/sericite) and fillers have been established, a suitable binder system must be selected in order to be able to press the powder into metal pans. The binder system can consist of one or more oils or a combination of oils and waxy materials. These ingredients must be able to completely wet all the powder particles evenly and create a free flowing homogeneous product.

The liquid portion of the binder can be an ester or oil such as mineral oil or other vegetable oil. Examples of esters are isopropyl palmitate and caprylic/capric triglyceride.

The waxy material can be lanolin derivatives such as isopropyl lanolate or lanolin alcohol, fatty alcohol such as cetyl or stearyl alcohol or fatty acid such as stearic acid.

These materials also aid in the product’s adhesion to the skin. The total binder can be as high as 6% or more in the finished product depending on the types of binder ingredients chosen.

NB: It is crucial when using vegetable oil/natural oil as binder to add anti oxidant agent such as BHT (butylhydroxylated toluene) to avoid the oil odor which will ruin the product’s fragrance.

Colors and pearls.

This is one of the most important component of pressed powder formulation. The colorants used are of the inorganic variety such as ultramarines, oxides of iron, chromium , titanium, zinc and tin, and organic colorants.

The color and pearl levels can vary depending on the current fashion trends that exist during the year. For eyeshadow the dry color level can be as high as 20-30% or more plus the pearl.


Some preservatives must be added to the formula to protect the product once it is in the hands of customer. These preservatives are usually the oil dispersible types such as propyl paraben or phenoxyethanol as there is usually no water present in the product. They can be added to the binder or ground with the other dry ingredients. The product should never be over preserved. Over preservation may cause skin irritation.

2. Manufacturing procedure for pressed powder


The powders must be blended sufficiently using mixer that tumbles and blends the powders without breaking or sintering the particles.

mixer ‘ribbon-type’

homogenous mixture

Milling the dry mixture

The dry mixture should be grinding using micropulverizer, hammer mill, disc mill or P-K Blender so that the particle size is uniform and small enough for proper product delivery and wetting. The colors in the mixture must be grounded to their primary particle size for optimum color development. Homogenity test should be conduct : making a paper press of the powder and seeing if there are any pigment specks and color streaking to see if the pigments are ground properly.

Very fine screens should be used in the grinding process, usually with holes or openings at 0.1-0.2 inches. ( The pearls should never be ground through a fine screen. This would destroy the pearl particles and will lose the effect of the material ). Pearls should only be ground as a very last step through a large screen opening just to fluff up and make the product uniform and prepare it for pressing.

disc mill

grinding the mixture

Adding the Binders and Perfume Oil

In all cases the binders must completely coat all the powder particles as this will aid in the proper pressing of the product. When we add the oil by pouring, we  should pour it little by little ( need some patience here ).

After all the binder have been poured into the mixture, it is now time for the perfume oil. There are many ways to achieve uniform distribution of the fragrance in the powder. One of them is  we could make a fragrance/absorbent powder pre-mix in a waring blender, and then add that (hopefully free-flowing) pre-blend to your other ingredients in a gentler/less energetic mixer.


Pressing the powder

A suitable pan must be selected made of the correct metal. Tin plating sometimes interferes with the powder pressing characteristics. The type of press and pressure is also important as well as the diameter and depth of the pan for a particular type of powder.

A drop test will be an adequate test of a powder’s compression properties. It is also important for a powder not to pimple or dust and not pressed so hard as to make the product glaze in the pan. The proper binder will help eliminate any negative attributes.

the same amount of powder to be placed in each pan

the same amount of powder to be placed in each pan(2)

the same pressure applied to each pan

a suitable product : eyeshadow

Silk ribbon is used to give the pressed powder surface a nice visual effect and sometimes a company’s logo can be embossed into the surface of the powder.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

1. Yes, pressed powder is another simple product to formulate. Once you have able to create a good formulation you can make either one of this product : compac-eyeshadow-blush on-2way cake.

2. Once we understand the process of making compac, there is no problem whether making a small batch scale with lab. device or industrial scale.

3. The pressure to correctly press a powder is different from formula to formula, and sometimes from batch to batch, and also depends on the size/shape of the container you are pressing into, and the machine you’re pressing with, and the length of time (dwell) that you press the powder for – among other things. You can only determine the correct settings by trial and error (If it was easy to figure this stuff out, they wouldn’t need a cosmetic chemist to do it).

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Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on June 14, 2012


How are you guys? How’s your life going on? Hope it’s all fine. In this tough time, only the beware guys will survive. I’m really sorry not posting lately since the past six months. But today, I’m back! Thanks also for all the comments saying that you found something from this blog. I’m really grateful guys..

This time I’d like to post something about exfoliator/peeling gel. This one draws my attention.. unlike chemical peels which use strong acid, this peeling is very gentle on the skin and only removes the unwanted dead skin and it does not dry or thin the skin and cause it to be vulnerable to sunlight.

This is the product :

the innovative exfoliator/peeling gel

the clear gel

white beads form to remove dead skin cells

1. Creating innovative cosmetic products

To create innovative cosmetic products, we need to know about and find niche markets. A cosmetic niche market is no different than a niche market in some other field. Essentially, a niche market is a sub set of a larger market. In practical terms, it is a smaller group of people with some specific characteristic that sets them apart.

Now that we know niche markets are smaller segments of consumer groups, this is important.  Ex.  Creating innovative new products will have to make products different and specific like solve wrinkles, acne, hair loss, hair growth, etc. Like the above product, it is sort of exfoliator, but include no conventional scrubs, micro-dermabrasions, AHA, peel, etc. The formulation is just perfect – it is non-abrasive, doesn’t tingle skin like glycolic acid does, effective but gentle, and it provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. The skin appears much more clear, translucent, smooth and soft without stripping its natural oil after each application…. some say 1 bottle is sold every 20 seconds, awesome right?

2. List of Ingredients

So, after browsing/searching a while, I came across this formula..

R/                                                  %


Water ……………………….. ad 100

Cetrimonium Chloride ………10.5

Propyl Glycol ……………………7

Alcohol …………………………… 1

Perfume ………………………….. qs

PEG40 HCO ……………………… 0.2

Preservative …………………….. qs

At first, I still don’t get it and wonder :

– where’s the scrub?

– what the centrimonium do in this formula? since we know this is conditioning agent for hair.

I have to make these clear first, before I step forward. Actually, after rubbing the gel on the skin there will be chemical reaction between cetrimonium chloride and carbomer, thickener, which will form white beads/residues ( If you reduce one of the ingredients, you will find out the residues will lesser or if you change the thickener, using cellulose group, there won’t be any white beads formed ). This reaction occurs instanly and the white beads/residues will act as peeling agent which remove the upper dead skin layers ( the claim said that 0.01 mm of old skin can be removed ). The removal process is very soft, gentle and provides a sense of achievement when we can feel the dead skin coming off. After washing, the skin feel moist, soften, translucent and bright.

This is really great innovation product. No wonder this product is very success in the market place.

3. Gathering raw materials

a. Carbomer

Yes, carbomer is one of the most revolutionary raw material. It is a swellable polymer that can create clear gels and elegant skin care products with a light feeling and good application properties. That made it easier to formulate stable skin care creams. It is difficult to create clear gels with good aesthetics without these polymers. That’s why carbomers also called as ‘formulator’s best friend’.

Carbomer is typically reserved to describe high molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid that are lightlyl cross-linked with allyl ethers of  polyalcohols eg. tetraallyl pentaerythritol (TAPE) and hexaallyl sucrose.

polyacrylic acid (PAA)

general structure of carbomer

The National Formulary (NF) lists traditional carbomers individually according to their specific chemistry and properties, eg. solution viscosity, using numbers associated with the trade names, eg. Carbomer 934 ( 30,500- 39,400 cP ), Carbomer 940 ( 40,000-60,000 cP ) etc. For modern carbomers synthetized using benzene-free processes, the NF has adopted the terms carbomer homopolymer ( polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols), carbomer copolymer ( copolymer of acrylic acid and a long chain alkyl methacrylate cross-linked with allyl ethers of polyalcohols ) and carbomer interpolymer ( carbomer homopolymer or carbomer copolymer that contains a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and a long chain alkyl acid esters ) to describe the various species of carbomers.

In contrast, the INCI Dictionary reserves the term carbomer for crosslinked copolymers of acrylic acid and it names crosslinked copolymer of acrylic acid with other comonomers as acrylate crosspolymers, eg. acrylates/C10-C30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer. Well, I hope we’re not’s all just terminology.

Now, we’ll talk about properties of carbomers :

1. Appearance : fluffy, white, hygroscopic powders with a slight acetic acid odor.

2. Variety differing principally by : the type of process solvent used (ie. benzene vs non benzene), the type and level of crosslinker employed and the addition of optional additives to improve wetting and dispersibility.

3. Nontoxic and exhibit little or no irritation potential to skin and eyes at concentrations employed in cosmetics and personal care products.

4. Impurities : residual polymerization solvents, unreacted monomers (eg. acrylic acid), acetic acid, proprionic acid, trace heavy metals, etc.

5. Dispersibility : readily dispersible in water and in mixture of  polar organic solvents with water such as 70% w/w ethanol-water solution.

6. pH : 2,5-3,5. ( Prior neutralization with a basic pH adjuster, eg. NaOH, TEA, these dispersions DO NOT possess significant viscosity and can be hazy. Upon neutralization of the carboxylic acid groups, the carbomer becomes ionized and swells to several hundred times its original volume due to electrostatic repulsions between the negatively charged carboxylate groups and osmotic swelling due to the captive counterions. The resulting microgel dispersions, sometimes referred to as mucilages, are clear fluids that display high viscosities and also exhibit high yield value.. the resistance of a fluid to initial flow when a stress is applied. ).

b. Centrimonium chloride

This ingredient belong to surfactant group. I’ve post about surfactant. If you like to read about it, click here.

4. Creating and revising prototype

After having complete understanding, I tried to make small scale in the frugal laboratory using simple tools like mortar/stamper, electric heater, glassware, etc. This just the steps :

1. Weighing the ingredients.


2. Mixing the water and humectant.

mixing water+humectant

3. Dispersing the carbomer until clear gel is formed.

dispersing carbomer..

4. Pouring the centrimonium chloride into the clear gel.

adding centrimonium chloride..

5. Adding emollient.

checking the gel..

5. Testing the prototypes

The first type of testing I want to do is to use the product on myself. Since I have experience with the target product I will know how close I am to matching it. No test will be more revealing as to whether I’ve copied the product than when I test in on myself. And then I’ll make note of any differences I experience.

the prototype..

apply the gel to my skin..

white beads produced after rubbing..

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

1. This product came from Japan and Japanese women are famous for their love of cosmetics.  So whenever a beauty product has been voted number 1 in Japan, it is the best selling pitch for others too.

2. To create innovative cosmetic products, we  need to know about and find niche markets.

So that’s all, if you find something please leave your comments below.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , | 16 Comments »

The worst financial decision I ever made..(5)

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on November 22, 2011

Huguette Clark, in 1930               (1906-2011)

Hi guys,

I kept posting articles about how people spend their money like drunken sailor as they turned millions into zero..In one of my postings, click here, it took only 20 years to spend 1 billion dollars before filling for bankruptcy. Very ridiculous right ? Here’s just another story about Huguette Clark, a copper tycoon’s daughter with a taste for exquisite French dolls, baronial homes and solitude, spend $170 million since 1996–or $1 million a month–until her death at 104 years old in 2011. Check it out..

Huguette Marcelle Clark

The youngest of seven children, Huguette Marcelle Clark was a daughter of a scoundrel. Her father, William Andrews Clark, was born in 1839 to a threadbare Pennsylvania family. Footloose and ambitious, he made his way to the MontanaTerritory, where, in the early 1870s, he struck copper, and with it his fortune.

William Andrews Clark           (1839-1925)

In the late 1890s, desiring a Senate seat, Mr. Clark went out and bought one, at least temporarily. By this time Montana was a state; under the United States Constitution, senators of the period were elected by their state legislatures. Mr. Clark, a Democrat, was reported to have loosed a cataract of thousand-dollar bills on theMontana statehouse, to no small effect. He took up his Senate seat in December 1899.

He vacated the seat in May 1900 as the Senate weighed a resolution to void his election. Later returned to office by the legislature, he served one term, from 1901 to 1907.

By this time, Senator Clark was one of the richest men inAmerica. In 1907, The New York Times estimated his fortune at $150 million — roughly $3 billion today. Besides copper, his interests included railroads, real estate, lumber, banking, cattle, sugar beets and gold.

His first wife bore five children, four of whom lived to adulthood. After her death in 1893, he took up with his teenage ward, Anna La Chapelle. They apparently married in 1901 and had two daughters, Andrée, born in 1902, and Huguette, born inParison June 9, 1906. At Huguette’s birth, her mother was 28, her father 67.

Huguette Clark, right, with her father, William Andrews Clark, and older sister, Andrée, circa 1915, when Huguette was about 9.

William Clark (middle) and daughter Huguette (right)

After leaving the Senate, Mr. Clark settled his family inNew York, erecting a mansion at962 Fifth Avenue, at77th Street, that was considered improvident even in an excessive age. Its 121 rooms included 31 bathrooms, 4 art galleries and a theater; there was also a swimming pool and a thundering pipe organ. It was there, interspersed with stays inCaliforniaandFrance, that Huguette grew up.

The 121-room mansion her father built on Fifth Avenue.

In 1919, Andrée Clark, Huguette’s sister, died of meningitis at 16; by all accounts her death shook Huguette deeply. Senator Clark died in 1925; many of the masterworks he owned now make up the William A. Clark Collection at the Corcoran Gallery of Art inWashington.

Huguette graduated from Miss Spence’s School (now the Spence School) in Manhattan and was introduced to society in 1926. Not long after her father’s death, she and her mother moved to an elegant apartment building at907 Fifth Avenue, at72nd Street.

Engagement announcement for Huguette Clark and William Gower in New York

In 1928, at 22, she married William MacDonald Gower, the son of a business associate of her father’s. The union lasted nine months: she charged desertion; he maintained the marriage was unconsummated, according to a 1941 biography of the family, “The Clarks, an American Phenomenon,” by William D. Mangam. The couple were formally divorced in 1930; she chose to be known afterward as Mrs. Huguette Clark.

By the late 1930s, Mrs. Clark had disappeared from the society pages. Most if not all of her siblings had died; she lived with her mother at907 Fifth Avenue, painting and playing the harp. Her mother died there in 1963.

Huguette spent most of her life in this fantastic apartment building adjacent to Central Park

For the quarter-century that followed, Mrs. Clark lived in the apartment in near solitude, amid a profusion of dollhouses and their occupants. She ate austere lunches of crackers and sardines and watched television, most avidly “The Flintstones.” A housekeeper kept the dolls’ dresses impeccably ironed.

Over the years she developed a distrust of outsiders, including her family, because she thought they were after her money. She preferred to conduct all of her conversations in French so that others were unlikely to understand the discussion. And so ran the rhythm of Mrs. Clark’s life until the day she left for the hospital and checked herself in.

In February 2010, Clark became the subject of a series of reports on, which said caretakers at her three residences had not seen her in decades, and that her palatial estates in Santa Barbara, California, and New Canaan, Connecticut, had lain empty throughout that time, although the houses and their extensive grounds were meticulously maintained by their staff. investigative reporter Bill Dedman later determined that she was in the care of a New York City hospital, and that some of her personal possessions had been quietly sold. Possessions sold included a rare 1709 violin called La Pucelle (or The Virgin) made by Antonio Stradivari and an 1882 Pierre-Auguste Renoir painting entitled In the Roses. Building staff reported that she was frail but not ill when Clark left her Fifth Avenue co-op in an ambulance in 1988. Initially she took up residence at Mount Sinai Medical Center to be more comfortable but was later transferred to another hospital in Manhattan.

Clark died at Beth Israel Medical Center on the morning of May 24, 2011, two weeks short of her 105th birthday. She had resided at the hospital for more than 20 years, leaving vacant but meticulously tended her grand homes inSanta Barbara,New Canaan,Conn., andNew York City.

So, how Huguette Clark spent her fortune  all without leaving hospital room ?

Court documents filed in a legal battle over the $400 million estate of Huguette Clark shed light on how the reclusive and eccentric mining heiress spent her fortune. Clark’s relatives–the descendants of her father, William Clark, a copper and banking tycoon andU.S. senator who was born before the Mexican War of 1840–are expected soon to challenge her will, which cut out her family entirely.

Among the revelations in the court documents, MSNBC reports:

• Since 1996, $170 million–or $1 million a month–was spent fromClark’s personal account or from an account controlled by her lawyer and accountant, who held legal power of attorney during that period. Both the attorney, Wallace Bock, and the accountant, Irving Kamsler, are reportedly being investigated by law enforcement for their handling of the fortune.

• Au Nain Bleu, a doll and toy shop inParis, was paid $2.5 million between 1997 and 2006. A friend of Clark’s said her dolls were “her closest companions.”

• Theriault’s, an auctioneer of dolls, received $729,000 between 1997 and 2009.

• Clark paid a combined $60 million to the IRS and in New Yorkstate income taxes, since 1996.

• A charity that built a controversial security system for Jewish settlers in theWest Bankreceived $1.85 million in donations. Bock’s daughter lives in the settlement protected by the system.

• Bock’s law firm received around $250,000 a year, and Kamsler around $90,000. If Clark’s will is allowed to stand, both men would receive much more–more than $8 million–as beneficiaries and as executors of the estate.

• Clark’s private nurse, Hadasah Peri, received a $5 million lump-sum payment, and around $131,000 a year.

• Beth Israel Medical Center inNew York, where Clarklived even though for most of that time she wasn’t sick, received about $4.9 million since 1997, or around $1,000 a day.

• Clark’s closest friend, Suzanne Pierre, who served as her social secretary, received almost $12 million.

• Clarkspent $3.75 million on taxes and co-op fees to maintain her unoccupied 15,000-square-footFifth Avenueapartment. She also paid more than $100,000 a year on property taxes for her New Canaan, home.

Both Bock and Kamsler have declined to comment on their management of their accounts, but their representatives have said the men acted honorably in complying with Clark’s wishes.

In the end, perhaps Mrs. Clark’s fondest wish — simply to vanish — has been realized, at least to an extent. Some of the most conspicuous artifacts of her former life are gone, chief among them the family’s Fifth Avenue mansion, which was razed after her father’s death.

Her Connecticut estate is on the market for $24 million. On the Web site advertising it for sale, photographs show its vast gracious rooms hauntingly empty.

Huguette has never spent a single night in the 12,766 square foot property

The home has been on the market since 2005, now with an asking price of $24 million

Huguette bought the home in 1952

And it has been empty for 57 years

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line 

– It’s amazing how fast people can run through $ million these days..

– Never ever thought having millions dollar bucks will surely make you and fam live happily ..

– Be thankful, whatever you & your fam’s condition right now,  surely the key to live happily in this world..

Posted in Experience | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on November 1, 2011


In my previous post, click here, I wrote that anyone can be taken by this Ponzi exception. Each scheme seems to have their own target, ‘passion group’, as they called it. The people who say they would never get victimized are also in ‘passion group’, ’cause they will use your confidence against you and you would fall for it. Man more so than women. Women are actually harder to victimized because their ego and self-confidence aren’t as likely to get the best of them. And woman like to ask questions and talk about things . Ponzi Schemers hate this. Men assume they know everything. It is so easy to take a man.. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY TRUE.. You can continue reading and note how’s the telemarketers of this scammers company worked their victims.

This time, I post about PONZI SCHEME case in the form of GOLD SCAMMER.. Here’s the story :

Owner of Three Precious Metals Firms Jamie Campany, Charged in $25 Million Precious Metals Investment Scheme


Jamie Campany, 47, of Palm Beach County, has been charged in a Criminal Information with multiple counts of mail and wire fraud. The Information charges Campany with five counts of mail fraud and four counts of wire fraud, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Sections 1341 and 1343, respectively.

Campany was the owner of three investment firms specializing in purported gold, silver, platinum, and palladium bullion purchases on behalf of individual clients. Among his companies were Global Bullion Exchange, LLC (“Global”), in Lake Worth, Florida, and various affiliated licensee businesses throughout Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade counties and other locations outside of Florida. In addition to Global, Campany owned and operated two predecessor firms, Barclay Trading Group, Inc. (“Barclay”) and The Bullion Group, Inc., both with offices in West Palm Beach.

Campany’s three businesses conducted a sophisticated telemarketing operation to solicit investors to purchase precious metal bullion using purported “leverage” financing. These same investors were led to believe that they would need only to provide a fraction of the total cost of the purchased metals, with the remainder of the purchase price to be covered by margin-type financing, which would purportedly be extended to the investor by a purported “clearing firm.” Many of the firms offer clients a chance to buy precious metals and have them delivered to their homes or stored in a secured location. Most choose storage. Customers are told they can buy “on leverage” — meaning they can obtain financing so they can purchase more metals. For example, a customer could put down $1,000 to buy $5,000 worth of gold.

From about September 2006 to April 2007 when Barclay was succeeded by Global, the purported “clearing firm” with which Barclay had initially associated began delaying and ultimately ignoring requests by Barclay’s customers to sell their precious metals investments. As a result, the unsatisfied clients began to complain and threatened Barclay with litigation. In addition, the clearing firm’s failure to sell the clients’ holdings left Barclay insolvent. In an attempt to prevent further complaints, litigation, and possible governmental enforcement action, Barclay began to satisfy its clients’ requests for liquidation of their investments by making payments to these clients using funds it had received from newer investors.

After Global succeeded Barclay, Global continued this same Ponzi strategy. Global thereafter used Diversified Investment Group, Inc. (“Diversified”), a shell company controlled by defendant Campany, as its purported “clearing firm.”   In fact, no bullion was purchased, even though clients paid substantial commissions and fees totaling approximately 18% of the total purported value of the metal allegedly purchased.

Campany also misrepresented to the investors that their holdings had been financed through so-called “margin” credit. Thus, the investors were charged substantial interest on these non-existent “loans” and were subjected to periodic false “margin calls” during market declines. A margin call required investors to supply additional funds upon demand to increase their account equity levels. Moreover, investors who could not comply with such “margin calls” were informed that their investment positions had been forcibly liquidated and taken by Diversified as a secured creditor.

In a recent litigation filed in Miami-Dade Circuit Court by a court-appointed assignee, it is estimated that more than 1,400 investors were defrauded by Campany’s scheme out of more than $25 million. Campany faces a maximum sentence of twenty years’ imprisonment and a maximum $250,000.00 fine for each of the Information’s nine counts. A federal judge next month will sentence the man who authorities say took advantage of the boominggold market, by scamming more than 1,400 people out of tens of millions of dollars.

But before he goes to prison, the mastermind of the scheme, Jamie Campany, sat down with ABC News’ Chief Investigative Correspondent Brian Ross to reveal how he tricked his hundreds of victims out of nearly $30 million.

The most promising victims of the gold scam, Campany said, were spotted through Google earthsatellite images. Campany and his team matched phone leads to addresses to find victims with the biggest homes, and therefore the most money to invest in gold and silver. But in reality, there was no gold despite the legitimate-looking transaction papers from the Global Bullion Exchange — a company that Campany said was “completely bogus.”

The Global Bullion Exchange was an invention of Campany’s, who took ABC News back to the now-empty telephone boiler room inFlorida where his telemarketers worked their victims, mostly upper middle class business people who Campany said let their egos get the best of them. 

“Quite frankly, little old ladies are a lot more astute and a lot more skeptical about making investments with people they don’t know,” he said.

The pitch worked off the falling stock market and the rising price of gold as Campany recalled his lines for ABC News.

“Come on. Everybody knows what’s going on in the markets today. Are you living in a cave?” he would say.

There was an answer for everything — even if victim’s protested by saying they didn’t have any money.

“Sure you do,” Campany or one of his telemarketers would say. “You’ve got a 401k, you have a stock portfolio… You have dead dogs that are not performing.”

Dave Blomberg ofHialeah,Fla., said he was caught up in the scam after he received those calls.

“I did end up giving them a considerable amount of money, cause I thought if I invested more, I would get the money back,” Blomberg said.

He never will, losing $75,000, and nor will the other investors. By the time the scheme collapsed and this place was shut down, all the money was long gone.

When the investment scheme collapsed in December 2009, more than 1,400 investors were out at least $29.5 million, according to court records. Most of that money had been raised by Lake-Worth based Global Bullion Exchange, which was formed by Campany in 2007. A Sun-Sentinel investigation documented that the majority of the firm’s 20 largest clients were senior citizens, and most of the money raised by the business in 2007 and 2008 went to brokers’ commissions.

As part of his plea agreement, Campany acknowledged that he took Global Bullion Exchange customers’ money with no intent to ever buy the promised precious metals.

“I think about it every day. These people have to live with the pain that I caused them,” Campany said. “It’s going to hurt them for the rest of their lives. Hopefully this is one way I can stop it from happening to anybody else.”

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– Global Bullion Exchange was one of a wave of more than 45 precious metals firms that set up shop in Broward andPalm Beachcounties within the last four years, offering gold, silver and palladium via heavily financed transactions. In an environment devoid of federal licensing or reporting requirements, convicted felons and people with checkered regulatory pasts were able to open businesses with little — if any — scrutiny, a March investigation by the Sun-Sentinel found.

– A new law took effect in July that gives the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission oversight of precious metals transactions when the metals aren’t physically delivered to the customer or a third-party location within 28 days.

Posted in Experience | Tagged: , , | 1 Comment »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on October 23, 2011

– What do people use for making up small test batches of cosmetics (liquid, emulsions, etc.)?

– Is there an alternative to the kitchen blender?

– In formulation development, would it be better to have a homogenizer or a mixer (or both)?

– My company just willing to order mixer for making perfume (liquid). Now, I”m just wonder several things : What is the rpm of the mixer? also about the type of blade, what is the best type to get homogenous liquid ? And what else to watch?

– I’m just wondering what’s the most efficient type machine used for loose powder/compact.  Is it a combined homogenizer and mixer?

– I’d like to know if we can manufacture stable emulsions on an industrial scale without using a homogenizer of rotor / stator type. In this case what type of mixing device must be chosen  (shape, speed, diameter..ect)?

– Would like to get a decent filler and some type of homogenizer or mixer for lotions that I don’t have to stand there and hold the whole time.

– I have to get some kind of mixer but not “lab” sized and not huge manufacturing size. Stinks to be stuck in the middle but that’s the reality of it. I would like to get something I can stick in the kettle with the emulsion and let it stir constantly to help cool and homogenize the mixture. I would like to do at least 5 gallons at a time (which is about all I can lift to put in the filler hopper). Please someone give me some advice on this. I have a very limited budget right now and I want to get something that will help make my life easier and my products faster ASAP!

– What would the correct type mixer / emulsifier be combined with a filler? I’m just not completely sure what I need but I am under the impression that a larger stick blender is not the correct type of mixer for making lotions and creams.

– I have a manual filler that works for now, but I have to make larger batches faster so I can be more efficient with my time. Any brands you recommend?

– We’re looking for something to either put on a stand or clamp onto the mixing vessel. I just want to make sure these are not “too” powerful or have the wrong blades for emulsifying and continuous mixing.

– If anyone knows of a link to videos showing how larger manufacturers fill paste-like granular products into jars I would love to see it

– Is the agitator a must in lotion making ?

Here’s just some example questions I collect to show how important these equipments in cosmetic production.

I have my own experience. Trying to copy nail polish product, I start creating  a formula, gathering raw material and creating prototype . At last I realized that it’s impossible for me to make nail polish product since I don’t have high-shear disperser nor miller/homogeniser.

high-shear disperser is needed to form gel of suspending agent not ‘hand blender’

colloid mill is needed to process this pigment not just ‘mortir’

According to their functions, we can divide these equipments into several categories, namely :

1. Equipment to process color cosmetics.

This equipment in the grinding process used to reduce colors, pigments and other color additives ( except pearlescent effect pigments ) down to their primary particle size of 3-5 microns.  You don’t want to grind pearls because a reduction in their particle size reduces or eliminates their visual effect. Grinding pigments is the most important part of producing color and decorative cosmetics.

The equipment available to perform this grinding process varies greatly in both function and cost. They are dependant on the particular type of product or its application. Different equipment is needed if you have a dry powder, a free-flowing liquid, or a viscous paste. These physical forms are all very similar as they are all dispersions of insoluble pigments in a suitable solvent vehicle. This dispersion, once it is ground, is then combined with the proper internal or external phase in the case of emulsions, or blended with other components – mica and other fillers for powder-based products, or waxes and oils in anhydrous lip products and other lipophilic one-phase systems. Even though a lipstick is a hard solid at room temperature, color is added as a dispersion usually in castor oil.

Let’s start with the easiest – lipsticks and lip glosses. These are usually one phase anhydrous hot pour systems with one major ingredient that is usually the main solvent in the system. It is this ingredient, usually castor oil or lanolin oil, which we use to grind the pigments. For this grinding process we can use a 3-roll mill or a ball mill/bead mill. They each have a totally different operating method but the end result is still the same – a nice smooth paste free from particulates, specks or color streaks. To achieve this, sufficient oil is used to completely wet out the pigments and the dispersion is usually passed through the mill a minimum of 2 times to sufficiently grind the pigments. This dispersion is then added to the remaining ingredients in the formula, and heated to a suitable temperature to allow for uniform mixing and homogeneity.

milling color – 3 rollmill

3-roll-mill in process

threerollmill theory



bead-mill theory

For powders, which are dry particulate systems, a different type of grinding and dispersing method is required. Here the pigments are blended with either talc or a mica or sericite and then ground with hammer mill or a canister type vessel with an internal high speed intensifier bar. This also requires 2 passes to break down the pigments to their proper particle size. In the hammer mill, the force of the hammers moving in a circular motion grinds the pigments and forced the dispersion through a screen with small hole usually 0.100 inches. This screen usually has circular holes to allow the powder to pass or openings with a herringbone pattern.

hammer mill



hammer_mill theory


The next, and probably the most critical process, is that of grinding pigments for emulsion-type products. Here the liquid vehicle is critical in determining which phase the pigments are to be dispersed. Here, no matter what the liquid vehicle, colloid mills and even ball mills can be used to grind the pigments. After the grinding process is complete and the dispersion is free of any unground pigments, this dispersion is added to the proper phase and the batch process is continued to completion.


A colloid mill’s grinding mechanism involves a rotor and a stator. As the names imply, the rotor rotates at a high speed and the stator is a stationary piece. The gap between the rotor and stator can be closed to within thousandths of an inch so that the grinding process can take place. In a ball mill, dispersions pass through a canister of tiny balls. The material that the balls are made of can differ depending on hardness desired and what materials you are grinding. They can be made of metallic or ceramic material. The friction of the dispersion passing between all the tiny balls creates the grinding mechanism. This type of milling as compared to a 3-roll mill is more effective in color development depending on the types of colorants being ground. Organic pigments usually develop better in a ball mill. Ball mills can also generate some heat in the grinding process so precautions should be taken in order to prevent solvent loss when working with volatile materials.

In my own experience when dealing with the nail polish, the milling of the pigment should use this kind of machine so the particle size is around 5 microns and they will easily kept dispersed in the product ( increase the stability ).

2. Equipment to mix, dissolve or disperse

They just used for mixing liquid, dissolve solid material or dispersing solid phase in liquid phase. In dispersing, the particle size down to 30 microns.

propeller_mixer for mixing liquids


hockmeyer mixer-disperser

disperser blade

cowles dissolver



dispax reactor

dispax reactor diagram

The DISPAX REACTOR is a high shear, three stage dispersing machine for the production of micro-emulsions and very fine suspensions. Three rotor-stator combinations (generators) in a series produce a small droplet or particle size, with a very narrow distribution. The generators can be easily interchanged, offering the ultimate in flexibility.

3. Equipment to homogenize

There are also homogenizers that can be used and are ideal for making dispersions or products uniform and homogeneous. They smooth out the product and reduce emulsion droplet size (emulsifying). This is also important for good product stability.



silverson homogeniser head

So that’s it for now. If you read this article and have comment pls write down below.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line 

– It is very important to determine the specific application and needs before you go and purchase an expensive piece of machinery. You don’t want to spend all that money and the equipment just gathers dust because you purchased to wrong model and use it once every 6 months or so. You want to purchase the right model so that you can work with it every day

– You should also shop around to get the best price for the particular piece of equipment that will work best.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on September 4, 2011

Hi all,

This time I’d like to write very interesting lightening cosmetics. This just something people try to do for hundred years ago.. cover blemishes with cosmetics. The records of the fourth century physician Galen speaks of them in the previous millennium. Until about 1973, dangerous agents such as ammoniated mercury had been used. Since then, mercury derivatives had been banned from most countries.

Many people are concerned with the degree of pigmentation of their skin. In Asia, most women desire whiter skin because of traditional beliefs that white skin denotes nobility and aristocracy.  An extreme case is in Japan where Geisha are known to paint their face white as a sign of social status, grace and beauty. Today the Geisha still paint their faces white but only as a ceremony of celebration of culture, history and background.

In other region within lower-class society such as in Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Mexico when asked why women used skin-whitening creams, and in some cases even applied these creams to their children,  one woman from an Arab-American family replied directly, “Oh, that’s simple. It is well known that in many Arab families the whiter looking children are the most preferred. People will often respond positively to the lighter-colored child and simply ignore the darker one.”

In an interview with one Latin American woman about identification and self-image, she told that “whiter-looking Spanish women are generally perceived as more attractive to many Latino men and vice versa.” The woman, a journalist, went on to say that during her childhood, her parents and her friends’ parents had always carefully screened the children invited to their parties “to be certain that they were light enough in color” and thus “of sufficient socioeconomic value to be included.”

So, the prevalent medical evidence of high levels of mercury poisoning among women of Saudi, African, Asian and Mexican backgrounds reflects a common and prevailing belief that whiter skin has greater currency and appeal. Apparently, the patients reporting to clinics with mercury-induced disease believe that the health risks associated with bleaching their skins are outweighed by the rewarding sociocultural return. In other words, they believe that removing the healthy melanin from their skin with toxic creams and soaps makes them more valuable in their own cultures and in European and Euro-American societies in general.

POISONOUS CREAM! Above is an example of a “skin-lightening” cream that contains poisonous levels of mercury.

The product contained 6,000 parts per million (ppm) of mercury, despite FDA regulations which limit mercury to 1 ppm.  What is the effect if someone apply mercury-based beauty/lightening cream ? Mercury poisoning is known to cause neurological and kidney damage and may also lead to psychiatric disorders. Now, we can see the urgency to quickly invent novel skin lighteners and depigmenting agents with a proven eficacy and safety profile with reasonable price. They’re a prominent need.

– What is Hiperpigmentation ?

Hyperpigmentation or skin discoloration is condition of skin when some patches of skin become darker than the surrounding area or generalized, when all body is affected. Hyperpigmentation can be inherited or, more often, aquired by a number of causes including photoaging, hormonal changes (contraceptives pregnancy, menopause), repeated and prolonged exposure to the sun, and chronic skin irriations, inflammation or skin diseases. Many people are concerned with the degree of pigmentation of their skin. For example, people with age spots/melasma, chloasma/mask of pregnancy  or freckles may wish such pigmented spots to be less pronounced.

freckle face

melasma, darker-skin

Others may wish to reduce the skin darkening caused by exposure to sunlight or to lighten their natural skin color. Such skin pigmentation disorder occur because the body produces too much melanin, which is the pigment produced by melanocytes in the skin. In recent years, cosmetic compositions have been developed to reduce the amount of melanin in the skin and therefore, whiten the skin.

– Biosynthesis of melanin

schematic of melanin synthesis

Skin and follicular/hair pigmentation is the result of the exposure of melanin at the surface of the skin and of the the hair follicle. Melanogenesis/synthesis of melanin is carried out specifically by the melanocytes, dendritic cells present in the basal layer of the epidermis, which put out branches for contact with the keratinocytes. The newly synthesized melanin is transferred from the melanocyte dendrites to the keratinocytes, which ultimately expose the melanin at the surface of the epidermis, thus providing uniform coloration of the epidermis.

The synthesis of melanins (pheomelanins, rich in sulfur, giving an orange color; eumelanins, conferring a brown color) is carried out in the melanosomes, which are melanocyte-specific lyosome-like organelles, by a complex enzymatic process. Three enzymes located on the internal face of the melanosomal membrane are successively involved in melanogenesis : tyrosinase, TRP-2 (tyrosinase-related protein-2) and TRP-1 (tyrosinase-related protein-1).

Tyrosine, a precursor for melanin synthesis, is hydroxylated to Dopa (dihydroxyphenylalanine) and then oxidized to dopaquinone, these two conversions being due to the action of tyrosinase. At this stage, the melanin synthesis canbe oriented toward pheomelanin (orange-yellow melanin) which is encountered in blond individuals/ redheads, or toward eumelanin (darkbrown melanin) which is encountered in individuals with dark pigmentation.

Eumelanin results from the polymerization of dopaquinone so as to give leukodopachrome and then dopachrome. The latter is in turn converted either to 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) or to 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) under the action of TRP-2. At this level, the synthesis of eumelanin can be carried out according to two pathways. DHI is oxidized, under the action of tyrosinase or of a peroxidase, to indole-5,6-quinone, while DHICA, under the action of TRP-1, gives 5,6-dihydroindole-2-carboxylic acid. The indole-5,6-quinone and the 5,6-dihydroindole-2-carboxylic acid polymerize so as to form melanochromes and then eumelanin.

The synthesis of pheomelanin involves the formation of sulfur compounds (cysteinyl-DOPA) subsequent to the action on dopaquinone of glutathione and of cysteine. The cysteinyl-DOPA is converted to alanylhydroxybenzothiazine and then to pheomelanin.

Under the effect of solar radiation of UVB type, human keratinocytes produce and secrete endothelin peptide hormone which exerts a paracrine effect on the melanocytes. Endothelin activates a G protein-coupled membrane receptor (ETR) inducing melanocytes proliferation, and transcription of the genes encoding tyrosinase and the ETR. Similarly, in response to UV radiation, keratinocytes and melanocytes secrete the α-MSH peptide ( melanocortin-stimulating hormone ) which regulates melanocytes pigmentation activity. To do this, α-MSH binds to MC-R ( melanocortin receptor ), inducing activation of the cAMP/PKA transduction pathway, or even of the ser/thr kinase PKC, resulting in de novo synthesis of tyrosinase and in eumelanin synthesis. PKC-β appears to directly activate tyrosinase by phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain thereof. α-MSH also appears to facilitate the trasnsfer of melanin to keratinocytes by stimulating melanocyte dendricity.

– Treatment for hyperpigmentation

The substances known for their depigmenting properties can act according to one of the following mechanisms :

1. On the viability of the epidermal and/or follicular melanocytes where melanogenesis takes place. This substance ( also called MC1-R receptor antagonist ) capable of binding to the melanotropin cellular receptors ( MC1-R ) present on the melanocyte membrane, of blocking the binding of α-MSH (melanocortin stimulating hormone ), a ligand specific for MC1-R, and of inhibiting the activation of MC1-R by α-MSH which will specifically and reversibly inhibits melanogenesis by decreasing the synthesis and the excessive production of  melanin pigments.

Among the MC1-R receptor antagonists known are : Melanostatine®5 ( INCI name : nonapeptide-1 ), an oligopeptide discovered by the Institut Europeen de Biologie cellulaire/European Cell Biology Institute, sold by the company Unipex and Sepiwhite MSH® ( INCI name : undecylenoyl phenylalanine ), lipoamino acid sold by the company Seppic.

2. By interfering with one of the stages of melanin biosynthesis, or by inhibiting one of the enzymes involves in the melanogenesis or by intercalating as a structural analogue of one of the chemical compounds of the melanin synthesis chain. These substances are widely used. Most skin whiteners currently on the market contain ingredients (hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, kojic acid,arbutin, azealic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid (licorice extract), cortex mori, and many others) that act as direct inhibitors of tyrosinase, the enzyme in the skin pigment cells (melanocytes) that make melanin.

Hydroquinone, however, exhibit considerable cytotoxicity capable of causing irreversible depigmentation and irritates the skin strongly, furthermore hydroquinone has recently been recognized as a carcinogen and thus the use of hydroquinone in cosmetic products has been prohibited by European regulatory. Just recently the FDA also announced its plans to possibly remove hydroquinone based products from store shelves (OTC) and limit its use to only prescription based medications.

3. By interfering in the transfer of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes such as Nicotinamide ( INCI name : niacinamide ).

4. Inhibit UV-induced melanin synthesis. These ingredients block UVA rays, the tanning rays, and therefore prevent skin darkening, ex. inorganic sunscreens such as Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide. In case of darker skin, the usage of UV sunscreen ( with >SPF 30 ) become the entire imperative as it offers protection to skin from early ageing and wrinkling.

5. Removal of pigmented skin cells with exfoliants such as alpha-hydroxy acids ( glycolic acid, salicylic acid, lactic acid ).

The ideal depigmenting compound should have a potent, rapid and selective bleaching effect on hyperactivated melanocytes, carry no short- or long-term side-effects and lead to a permanent removal of undesired pigment.

– Recent Skin-Lightening Patents

Recent patents related to skin lightening include :

1. Pomegranate melanin reduction, the pomegranate extract may be standardized to about 20% punicalagins, which are large polyphenol tannin compounds.

2. Reducing retinoid irritation in skin lightening. Effective skin lightening is achieved by combining a polymeric microparticle-entrapped retinoid with a second skin lightening agent such as kojic acid or a derivative thereof ( kojic acid dipalmitate ) in an emulsion composition.

3. Dopa oxidase inhibitor. By inhibiting dopa oxidase activity, thereby suppressing melanin production.

– Tips for finding a good skin lightening cream

1. Never buy creams that contain steroids.

2. Avoid buying creams which contain hydroquinone.

3. Mitracarpus extract, bearberry extract and mulberry extract are good alternatives to hydroquinone.

4. Creams containing Kojic Acid in combination with glycolic acid show good results.

5. Azelic acid in 15-20% concentration is very effective and causes less irritation than hydroquinone.

6. Look for skin lightening creams that contain plant extracts too.

7. Creams having Vitamin C are extremely good in inhibiting melanin production.

8. Avoid creams which contain mercury as an active ingredient.

So..that’s all for now. If you’re already read it and have something in mind, just write comment below.

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– Do not use products or imported products if there are no ingredients, registration number, manufacturer address, expired date and batch code on the label.

– Perhaps we must make an equally strong effort to convince women and men of color that they are beautiful as they are. This task may be as challenging as trying to convince people with light skin that it is unnecessary and hazardous to lie out in the sun or go to a salon in pursuit of a tan.

– “Skin-whitening” cream, one product say, “lightens your complexion and eliminates ugly spots and accumulated impurities, leaving the skin with an even glow.” Other products suggest its use for” any discoloration due to age, wrinkles, freckles or sun spots”

– A number of skin-lightening compounds have been partially or completely banned because of toxicity and environmental concerns. For example : mercury, hormonal preparations and oxidizing agents have been banned as skin-lightening agents.

– The trend is to find natural extracts that can synergistically provide inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme.

– Combining skin-lightening agents is possible, specifically the combinations of niacinamide with an ascorbyl derivatives or with mulberry and bearberry extract, and arbutin and ascorbyl derivatives with kojic dipalmitate.

Posted in Beauty Science | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments »


Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on August 30, 2011

Hi guys,

How’s the things? Sorry for no posting lately, merely just lack of idea. Now I got one, dealing with my situation right now. As most of you know I’m working in a small..very small.. 🙂 cosmetics manufacturer, formulating mostly make-up kit   ( compact powder- foundation )  & perfume. Though we’re small, our orders have increased so much lately to a point where we need to figure out-within a very strict budget and space-how to increase our production so we can get more product out the door fast. Right now, we can make about 10 kg/batch and I’d like to at least double that. The equipments we have are simple filler with a manual piston type and hopper fits just about 15 kg products. I know that we need to invest in some equipments to be more productive and efficient. Anyhow, the price of equipments is very..very frightening.

It’s very crucial for cosmetics company to go from lab-batch to pilot project and last scale-up production. Scale-up from laboratory to production is can sometimes be a little difficult. There are some factors that must be taken into consideration before even get to the production floor. The most critical points to look at are batch size, energy requirements, equipment capabilities, time and temperature, among others. These must be considered along with type of product, ingredient type, concentration, phase ratio and order of addition.  One point overlooked may mean the difference between a successful batch and a total failure. There’s nothing worse than expecting a product to turn out as a heavy cream and you wind up with a thin lotion.  

Energy requirements

The total amount of energy required to produce a batch in the lab must be translated into larger production batches, no matter what the batch size is. This is even more critical when making emulsions. Examples :

1. If it takes 10 minutes to add an oil phase to a water phase in the lab, then it must also take 10 minutes to incorporate that same oil phase into the water phase of a 2000 kilogram size batch in production. Yes, a transfer pump must be used in production to recreate the emulsion. The same exact speed and flow characteristics must be used for the pump.

2. Mixer speed and energy produced by a homogenizer (lab and production models shown below) if all this energy is required to create the product.

homogenizer-lab(left) & homogenizer-production(right)

This must be duplicated in order to produce the same product with the same identical characteristics: droplet size, viscosity, application characteristics, feel, color, etc. The energy required in production must be the same as used in the lab which means that mixer size, rpm’s, energy output, sheer rate, etc. must all be calibrated to be equal.  Otherwise the possibility of having a different type of emulsion is quite real if the proper conditions are not met.

3. The grinding method used in the lab must also be used in manufacturing. This will ensure that all color particles have been broken down to 3-5 microns to guarantee optimum color development and avoiding any color streaking or specks. The equipment pictured below (a pigment disperser and a 3-roll mill) are not equal and will give the final product differences in feel, consistency, color particle size, possible hardness, and above all, shade. However the lab bench top roller mill and the larger mill next to it are definitely equivalent.


Manufacturing procedures

The formulator must be able to create manufacturing procedures that will guarantee reproducibility of a certain type of product, no matter how large the batch may be. These include :

1. Mixing. Mixing speeds and the amount of energy introduced during processing have a direct impact on the final aesthetics, stability and homogenity of the final product. This may be easy for small lab batch but can be more complicated in production. Lately, I succeded in developing compact powder with simple ingredient in lab scale, about 500 g/batch. But, frankly, I’m confused how to make if the batch size is 10 kg. Also, in developing nail polish, I succeded in lab scale about 500 g/batch. The question is how supposed to make if the batch size is 10 kg? This is exactly the same to cream.

2. Heating and Cooling. Lab batches can heat/cool to ambient temperature rather quickly, but it takes much longer for a plant to heat/cool a production- size batch. Uneven cooling process could cause, for example, the premature solidification of waxes in the development of  an emulsion.

3. Sub-phases or Pre-mixes are smaller phases compromised of several ingredients that require pre-mixing to dissolve, wet or react prior to their addition to the main phase. If sub-phases/pre-mixes are necessary ensure that this type of mixing is possible for production with just a propeller mixer rather than a homogenizer.

4. Rate and Order of Addition. The rate and sequence for transferring materials into the main kettle must also be controlled and consistent. Each phase should have adequate mixing time before the subsequent sequence is added. To maintain uniform mixing, the order and rate of addition during scale-up may be modified. The batch may cannot withstand over-mixing during a long addition sequence.

5. Formula Adjustments. Adjustments, whether for color, pH or viscosity, ensure consistency in aesthetics as well as micro integrity. If in-process adjustments are necessary, determining the specific amount of adjuster added is useful so that in the future, it can be added up front during lab batches and pilots to optimize the process for production. Making lab batches with multiple lots can provide insight on the amount required for the pH or viscosity adjustment. It is easier to slightly adjust the pH or viscosity of a batch near the end of the process rather than to initiate prolonged mixing with a long adjustment sequence after the batch has been completed.


The correct equipment available will guarantee that the batch scale up can adequately be performed.  All the equipment used in the laboratory and production is designed with documented specifications regarding pump speed, torque, rpm’s, horsepower rating, heating and cooling rate, etc. Some examples lab-equipmetnts :


Some examples production equipments :


Process Development Engineer

Product physics and energy requirements are usually beyond the capabilities of the average formulator unless they have some level of engineering experience which is only in very rare instances. In order to meet these challenges, a process development engineer is necessary to work very closely with the formulator.  The engineer knows exactly what equipment to use to achieve the desired energy necessary to replicate a product successfully and reproduce it no matter how big the batch is or what kettle/ equipment combination is used. If certain equipment is not available to perform a certain task on a larger scale, then the engineer is capable of making suitable recommendations as to the design and construction of such a piece of equipment. With new products comes new technology and the need for new equipment to successfully replicate these new products. That’s why process engineers are usually involved very early in the product development process, advising and offering input to the formulator with regard to equipment and energy requirements.

In a process development lab, a laboratory formula is made with the equipment the process engineer feels will adequately duplicate the product. Larger batches of the formula are made to see if this will happen. Recommendations are made to the formulator as to changes that may be necessary in the formula. The formulator and the process development engineer usually work very closely together in this process. When a formulator presents the formula to the engineer, the engineer knows (based on the equipment available in the production facility) exactly where and with what equipment the product will be made. It will be known right away which equipment combination will be optimum for a specific product for a specific kettle/mixer combination. But not every piece of equipment can be used for every product.

New equipment design may be necessary in order to manufacture a specific type of cosmetic or personal care product. New equipment design will make it possible to manufacture products that were once thought to be impossible to make. Such specialized equipment can be manufactured for laboratory or production use, making batch scaleup less of an issue because scaleup has already been considered by the manufacturer in the equipment’s design. Usually an engineer has to calculate the differences in energy output compared to horsepower rating and rpm’s between different pieces of equipment. This is how an engineer knows what product can be made where and at what batch size. With new equipment, the manufacturer already knows and has calculated these differences ahead of time making the engineer’s job a little bit easier. It is sometimes based on an engineer’s specifications with custom designed equipment setups geared towards specific production requirements.

So, these are I’m facing right now. I have copied nail polish product, compact powder and whitening cream in laboratory. And now, time to scale up the batch size to production scale and it is not as simple as there’s different problems are awaiting to be solved..

If you finish read this posting and like to comment just feel free to write below..

andriantoangkadirjo85 bottom line

– There should be no guessing or question marks when it comes to recreating an approved formula that has to ship quickly. A formulator must keep these points in the back of their mind and be aware that these conditions must be addressed in order to create the best product.

– There should be no holdup when the lab formula has to go to production. A product should be in and out of the kettle, filled and shipped to the cosmetic counter for sale to consumers around the world.

An experienced process development engineer is really important part of this scale up process.

– At last, the most important is the many problems can’t be solved without investing new equipment, new ingredient or even new environment condition.

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Copy Nail Polish Product..

Posted by andriantoangkadirjo85 on July 24, 2011

Hi all,

Cosmetics and their use as decorative applications for the human body have been in existence for centuries and are used extensively throughout the world. As a multibillion-dollar industry, cosmetics have many different applications, including the use of lipstick, eyeliner, facial creams, powders, highlighters and nail polishes or lacquers. Used primarily by women, the extent of cosmetic use is extraordinary, and has made many of the cosmetics producing and marketing firms very profitable endeavors.

The nail polish sector of the cosmetic industry is extremely competitive. New colors, combinations, including clear formulations and varitation thereof are constantly hold onto a bigger piece of the market share. The scientific research that is poured into these endeavors is considerable and new products and/or brand names are continually being introduced.

According to Euromonitor, the retail value of the global market for nail products, which includes nail varnishes, enamels, nail varnish removers, treatments, home manicure products, including cuticle softeners and nail strengtheners, reached $4.9 billion in 2010, with hand care products, including hand moisturizers, emollients, and soothers and hydrators for skin prone to redness, irritation, or eczema, reaching $2.3 billion. Nail products in the US reached $800 million in retail value, and US hand care products were valued at $110 million.

Euromonitor notes that nail polish was the fastest growing category in the sector, registering 8% current value growth in 2009, an improvement on the 7% growth in the previous year. In addition, the DIY (do it yourself) trend helped drive 9% value growth in nail care products in 2009. Budget conscious consumers continue to give themselves manicures and pedicures at home, while nail polishes continue to benefit from new launches. According to Euromonitor, as a result of the growth in sales, nail products also saw a flurry of company activity, with, Coty acquiring the OPI nail polish brand.

Marvelous..superb..tons of business opportunities..

What are nail polishes? They are essentially comprised of pigments and/or dyes that are incorporated and suspended in various solvents and bases. The polishes are also stabilized in the suspensions to protect the appearance of the product and to prevent the pigments, during the shelf life of the product, from floating, settling, separating, or striating the polish. Nail polishes are also formulated so that the film formed thereby is tough and durable and adheres to the human nail and will not readily crack, chip, peel, splinter, or become brittle after application and during wear. The toughness should last for an extended period of time, thereby enhancing the durability of the nail polish enamel.

I’ve been assigned to copy nail polish/nail enamel/nail lacquer. It’s been more complicated than the first one, see here, If you’re wondering what was I doing about it, I conveniently presented it to you. I devided into several steps, ie :

1. The Target.

12 different shades to copy

2. Create formulas.

There are many sources available :

US PATENTS & many free-online formularies of suppliers, magazines and other sources.

3. Gathering raw materials.

I think this is the toughest part of the job. Because I work in small company, I’m unable to meet with the sales reps from all suppliers as many actually don’t know about the existence of the company. Really gathering from scratch..:). But I just thought this as a kind of mentally be patience, not easily give up. An interesting story when I called the principle reps office in Singapore just to ask their reps office in Indonesia. But the try is worthy. The reps in Indonesia really proved to bring great help to this project, by supplying great data and sample..:)

3. Create dye solution for color matching.

To match the color with the target, I started with 0.1% w/w oil solutions of the colors. Fortunately, the colors for nail polished used to comprise of D&C Red #6, #7, #34, D&C Yellow #5 Lakes, Titanium Dioxide, Mica, Iron Oxides, Iron Black Aluminium Silicate and Iron Blue Aluminium Silicate. 

After mixed it, compare to the target and determine whether it is to dark or too light. In the next attempt, double the amount of color if too light or cut it in half if too dark. Continue this process of doubling or halving dye levels until get something that matches. If done properly, we should get pretty close in 7 tries. Also, do not forget to record how much color we’ve used.

4. Make solution for Nitrocellulose.

As Nitrocellulose is dangerous/explosive if not handling properly, so it is safer to keep this material in the form of solution. First, wetting the Nitrocellulose with 30% Isopropyl Alcohol, and then dissolved with ester solvent such as Ethyl Acetate. First we don’t have clear solution, but with keeping it in tight container, we’ll have clear solution within days.

Well, now one of the crucial point is taken care, keeping the Nitrocellulose safe! What a relief..:)

5. Prepare the nail polish base.

I devided this base into 2 : clear lacquer base and thixotropic clear lacquer base.

a. Clear Lacquer Base 

clear nail lacquer

To make this clear lacquer base, I just mixed acrylates copolymer with solvent like alcohol and butyl acetate or acetone. This will make a clear one, different from nitrocellulose or its derivates which produce clear, yellowish solution.

Thanks to God ! When I try this clear base by applying to my nail, this proved to be a good one.. Have glossy,  proper viscosity, good adhesion & flexibility, chip & scratch resistance.

So relief..just half way left to finish the product.

b. Thixotropic Clear Lacquer

To complete gelification need 1-day standing

Composition consist of clear lacquer + attapulgite, a hydrated magnesium aluminosilicate. Attapulgite occurs as tightly packed bundles of submicron particles whose lathe-like structure gives it unique colloidal and sorptive properties. As thickener and suspending agent, they provide benefits including easy dispersion, formulating latitude and long term stability.

Both ingredients (clear lacquer & attapulgite) have to be dispersed using a high mixing speed, eg. with the help of an Ultra-Turrax apparatus or a dissolver. High-speed mixing creates optimum dispersion, thus rapid & maximum thickening. Intensive, slow-speed mixing, such as with a double planetary-type mixer, may take longer to develop near maximum viscosity.

During this process the lacquer becomes warm. After cooling a jelly stucture starts to appear. This gelification process is completely after about 1 day of standing. The amount of attapulgite is reduced as solids rise. Pigmented systems may need less than 0.5% for suspension or soft-settle, and those with large particles may need 0.5% to 2.0%. These solids content and amount of attapulgite are crucial. Too much will cause the product too thick and can’t be applied smoothly. Too little will cause the opposite, the product will be too thin and difficult to apply.

6. The finished nail lacquer.

Depending on the desired pearl effect, appropriate pearl-pigment dispersion or pure powdered pearl-pigments are added to the thixotropic clear lacquer. Usually between 0.3%-1.5%. Powder pigments from Rona/Merck program can yield attractive effects in nail lacquers, such as :

  • interference pigments for change-effects, eg. Timiron Super Red, Timiron Super Violet, Timiron Super Copper.
  • color lustre pigments for lustre and color, eg. Colorona Sienna, Colorona Copper, Colorona Bronze.

Concentration in the nail lacquer about 1%-1.5%.

The pearl pigment dispersion or the pigment powder is carefully stirred into the thixotropic clear lacquer until homogeneous. A dispersion apparatus should however, on no account be used for this purpose.

Further addition of dye stuffs is possible. Conventional pigments should be dispersed into the thixotropic clear lacquer before the pearl lustre pigments are added, because they need high shear forces for dispersion.

7. Filling nail polish.

The obstacles in filling nail lacquer are small bottles, narrow necks, flammable contents. Manual filling machine for cream might work, but should modify the filling head so that it turn very narrow and can reach the bottom of the pack. Unless, the bubbles will blowing nail polish out of the top of pack.

During the filling, as it is a solvent based product, make sure it is well ventilated. Otherwise, after a couple of dozen packs we’ll be floating on the ceilings..:)

andriantoangkadirjo bottom line

– Nail polish is really very2 competitive cosmetic product. It is the fastest growing category in the sector with highest value growth in the market.

– Nail polish formulation is really unique. Not only cosmetic but also dealing paint formula in general, like car, house,etc. The knowledge in it is vast..No wonder many cosmetic industries are reluctant dealt with this product, considering difficulties and toughness in formulating.

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